Location of Object:
Eden Killer Whale Museum, 184 Imlay Street, Eden, NSW, 2551
Accessibility of Object:
This object belongs to the Eden Killer Whale Museum Management Committee Inc., the organisation responsible for managing the Eden Killer Whale Museum.
The museum is open Monday to Sunday inclusively between 9.15 am – 3.45 pm; closed Christmas Day; extended operating hours in place over the Christmas / New Year period.
In line with standard best practice long term preservation procedures, the museum maintains a regular rotating exhibition schedule, meaning that at any given time, there can be no guarantee that certain items in the collection will be on public display. As one exception to this rule, Old Tom always remains exhibition.
History and Provenance of Object:
Following the death in 1930 of Old Tom, the last of the Twofold Bay killer whales, his skeleton was cleaned, prepared and assembled to ensure that the unique story of the local whaling industry was preserved. As an important part of local history and heritage, the move gave birth to the internationally renowned Eden Killer Whale Museum.
As the site of the first shore-based whaling station on mainland Australia, the industry was a vital part of Eden’s economy for almost a century. However, it was the remarkable relationship between the whalers in their open boats and the pods of killer whales frequenting the area that made the local undertaking so notable. While Orcinus Orca had preyed upon baleen whales and other ocean creatures for thousands of years, only in Twofold Bay was there an ongoing documented occurrence of the killers, as they were popularly known, working in co-operation with man to hunt for mutual benefit.
In an association dating back thousands of years, the local Aboriginal people, the Katungal (or sea coast people) were the first to foster the unique bond with the Twofold Bay killers. Part of the larger Yuin (Murring) nation, the group occupied an area extending from about Nowra down the coast to Green Cape. Over countless centuries they had developed a deep appreciation and understanding of their natural environment, so not surprisingly, their spirituality, beliefs, customs and laws were inextricably rooted in the land and all it had to offer.
While it is uncertain exactly when Orcas began frequenting Twofold Bay, they feature strongly in the Katungal’s sacred belief system. According to their age old lore, the “beowas” (or “brothers”) were family members reincarnated to the sea. Across the centuries, the local people benefitted from the killers’ natural instinct of herding migrating whales, seals and other ocean creatures into the shallows where they either became stranded or were within reach of a well-aimed spear, this valuable and much appreciated food source reinforcing the reverence with which the killers were regarded.
As one of the oldest human / animal hunting partnerships in the world, oral tradition documents this unique collaboration. The local indigenous people, responding to their generosity, would call the beowas with chants and water slapping, offering gifts of food including the much prized whale tongue, an extraordinary bond that was noted by early Europeans. And possibly because of the integral involvement of indigenous crew members from very early on in Twofold Bay’s commercial whaling industry, the killers continued to play a significant and well documented part over almost a century.
Despite the obvious presence of commercially valuable species along the Australian coastline, it was not until after the 1823 removal of levies on colonial oil entering Britain that whaling rose to a position of importance in New South Wales and Van Diemen’s Land (Tasmania).
Five years later, Sydney merchant Thomas Raine sent a party to Twofold Bay to establish mainland Australia’s first shore based whaling station. Proving highly lucrative, others soon followed including the three Scottish Imlay Brothers, Benjamin Boyd and William Walker and Co. By this time, stories about the peculiar behaviour of killer whales frequenting the area were starting to circulate. Eye witnesses reported the orcas prowling the entrance of the bay, using its unique geography to ambush passing humpback, blue, southern right and minke whales, ripping at their fins, diving over their blowholes and forcing them into shallower waters where the whalers finished the kill.
Noted by early explorers, the symbiotic relationship that had existed between the local indigenous peoples and the killers for centuries continued with the commencement of the European whaling industry. Well documented over almost a century from at least 1843 to 1930, it was recorded in an array of sources – letters and postcards, diaries and journals, books, newspapers, police records and court transcripts, Australian Hansard, art work, photographs and even what was reputedly the world’s first documentary film.
Amongst the earliest surviving records of the behaviour of the Twofold Bay killers are the diaries kept by Oswald Brierly, whaling manager for Benjamin Boyd during the 1840s. These journals clearly demonstrate the killers’ involvement in the local whaling industry, even at that early stage; while his sketches and paintings from the same era frequently show them in attendance during whale chases.
Local photographers W. T. Hall and C. E. Wellings also left a precious bank of images detailing the killers’ activities; while the phenomena was witnessed by hundreds, including not only local whalers, fishermen and residents but also priests and ministers, industry leaders, members of parliament and knights of the realm.
It was during the 1850s that the best known of the Twofold Bay whalers entered the fray. After acquiring gear from Benjamin Boyd’s bankrupt estate and purchasing a number of open boats from other whalers, Alexander Davidson embarked on what would become Australia’s longest running shore-based station.
Indigenous crews formed a vital and valuable part of the workforce right from that early stage and unlike many others of the era, he believed in paying his Aboriginal employees the same as their European counterparts, this mutual respect laying the foundation for a lengthy relationship that spanned several generations. Through this close association, the Davidson whalers also came to revere the killers in much the same way as their indigenous crew members and it is likely that this was the origin of the reward system known as “the law of the tongue”. In a similar vein to the food offerings made to the beowas by generations of local Aboriginal peoples, the Davidson whalers always allowed their orca partners unfettered access to the spoils of the catch.
After a whale had been successfully hunted down and killed, the whalers anchored the carcass and after tying a small buoy to signal its location, returned to the whaling station, leaving the killers to devour the lips and tongue, the only parts they were interested in. After they had had their fill and the gasses of decomposition had brought the dead beast to the surface, the whalers would return to tow the remains back to the Kiah River station to commence trying out the blubber. It is thought that this is probably one contributing factor for the killers continuing to work almost exclusively with the Davidson family over so many years.
Another was undoubtedly the fact that they continued to practice the dangerous, backbreaking techniques described in 1927 by early marine biologist Professor Dakin as those “…of the old bay whalers of the 1840s…” In an era when many others were adopting modern technologies, the Davidsons shunned faster motor boats in preference to oared craft and retained hand harpoons rather than explosive “bomb guns” to avoid distressing the killers with the noisy equipment.
Well known for their herding behaviour, once the pods had honed in on a target and hunted it into the bay, members of the party would break away and head to the whaling station at the mouth of the Kiah River. There they would splash and flop tail to alert the whalers who would launch their boats and join in the chase. A report in 1872 noted that “Since Twofold Bay was first settled by Europeans it has been noticed that ‘the killers’ visit the bay every year and watch for their prey at a point of the bay called by the whalers Leather Jacket…Forming themselves into line they swiftly swim until they have the prey between them and the shore, when they begin to close upon it, driving it into shallow water, attacking it with their teeth…The whalers now come into the scene and harpoon the worried fish and kill it…” This behaviour was likewise noted in 1903: “When a whale is passing north it is driven into Twofold Bay by what are known as the killers…when the killers succeed in driving the whale into the bay they leave off the attack and wait for the whale boat to come. Any attempt a whale makes to go out to sea the killers resent with all energy by snapping pieces out of it…all the time the killers are at work.” And while this group hunting technique isn’t necessarily unique to the Twofold Bay killers, the co-operative relationship that developed between these orcas and the human whalers has never been documented anywhere else in the world.
The killers were known to grasp ropes in their teeth to tow the whale boats to their prey, a behaviour that has, in more recent years, been demonstrated by captive cetaceans during aquarium performances. An incident described in a journal from the turn of the 19th century told that “Davidson threw a painter [anchor rope] over the bow of his boat. It was immediately grasped by two killers. They took the rope in tandem fashion with a half hitch around the shoulder and started after the quarry…” Old Tom’s teeth also clearly show significant wear marks from this habit of grabbing the fast-moving ropes.
So strong was this bond between man and orca that they continually looked out for each other. The killers recognised the Davidson’s green coloured boats as well the individual whalers themselves and during a chase, would remain in close proximity, the whalers believing that, in the event of a capsize, they would be protected from the sharks that usually followed. On the occasions that the killers became entangled in ropes and other equipment, the whalers would also undertake rescue operations. The response after the stabbing death of one of the pod indicated the level of feeling – so incensed were the whalers that the local police advised the perpetrator to leave town before it escalated into violence.
Perhaps one of the most intriguing examples of this close attachment was the behaviour of Old Tom after the 1926 drowning of Jack Davidson and two of his children. Although a search of the area over more than a week failed to locate Jack’s body, Tom continued to swim over one particular area - and it was there that Jack’s remains were eventually found.
So familiar were the whalers with the killers that they recognised individuals by the unique physical characteristics of their dorsal fins and saddle markings, a practice now standard for identifying orcas in the wild. Among those known by name were Hookey, Humpy, Stranger, Cooper, Charlie, Kinscher, Typee, Jackson, Big Ben, Little Ben (or Young Ben), Jimmy, Sharkey, Charlie Adgery, Brierly, Albert, Walker, Youngster, Big Jack, Little Jack, Skinner and Montague; as well as the large male known as Old Tom, easily identified by his distinctive tall dorsal fin.
By 1900, individuals numbered between 15 and 20, but following the stabbing death of one of their pod, they suddenly left the bay and the following year, only six returned. The Twofold Bay killers continued to dwindle and, combined with rising costs and the increasing availability of substitutes, commercial whaling at Twofold Bay finally came to a halt in 1929.
Old Tom continued to come back to Eden season after season, often alone, until on 17 September 1930, his body was found floating in the bay by Alex Greig. While he and George Davidson were viewing the remains, Davidson’s neighbour J. R. Logan joined them and suggested that Tom’s skeleton be prepared for public exhibition. Davidson then towed the body to the Kiah try works where he and his son Wallace undertook the work. The foundation of the Eden Killer Whale Museum had been laid.
Once the task of cleaning the skeleton was completed in January 1931, it was assembled and placed on display in the Twofold Bay Development League’s rooms in Imlay Street. The same month, the first public meeting was held to establish a museum to share the story of Old Tom and the remarkable relationship between the Twofold Bay killers and the whalers. Plans for the small building were prepared by J. R. Logan and fundraising commenced, with construction of Old Tom’s new home completed in 1938.
Proudly opened in 1939, the Eden Killer Whale Museum still houses Old Tom today (2019), the only complete orca skeleton on public display in the southern hemisphere. Managed by a dedicated band of local volunteers as well as professional staff, it is now one of the oldest museums in New South Wales, caring for an extensive, highly significant and ever growing collection of local history and maritime artefacts.
Although popularly referred to as “killer whales”, orcas are one of the 35 species of the oceanic dolphin family that first appeared about 11 million years ago. The largest of the group, their hefty size and strength make them among the fastest marine mammals, capable of reaching speeds of up to 56 kilometres an hour.
Recognisable by their distinctive black, white and grey colouring, these features are used to identify individuals.
With good eyesight above and below water, a good sense of touch and excellent hearing, like all cetaceans, killer whales depend heavily on underwater sounds for orientation, feeding and communication. Their echolocation abilities are exceptionally sophisticated, detecting the location and characteristics of objects in the water by emitting clicks and listening for echoes. All members of resident pods use similar calls, known collectively as a dialect, which is distinguishable not only between pods but also types.
Highly intelligent creatures with complex social systems and structures comparable only to high primates and elephants, resident orcas live in stable groups. They imitate others and seem to deliberately teach skills to their kin. Their use of dialects and the passing of other learned behaviours from generation to generation has been described as a form of animal culture. The complex and stable societies of various geographic groups appear to have no parallel other than in the human race
An apex carnivorous predator, orcas have no known natural enemies. Sometimes referred to as the “wolves of the sea” because they will hunt in groups like wolf packs, their diet varies seasonally and regionally, but may include a selection of ocean dwelling creatures such as fish, cephalopods, sea birds, dolphins, humpback, blue and sperm whales, sea turtles, dugongs, seals and sea lions. Individual populations may also specialise, often targeting specific prey.
Probably the most cosmopolitan of all cetaceans, killer whales are found in all oceans and most seas worldwide. Widely distributed, they can be found in a variety of marine environments ranging from the tropical equatorial regions through to the polar pack ice zones of the Arctic and Antarctic. The only areas they are known to be absent from are the Baltic and Black Seas and some parts of the Arctic Ocean. They are most numerous in coastal waters and cooler regions and in Australia, are found in all states with concentrations particularly reported around Tasmania. Orcas are one of the few species that move freely from hemisphere to hemisphere and because of this enormous range, their numbers, density and relative distribution makes global estimates difficult. Thus the total world population remains unknown.
Although there have been instances of captive orcas injuring or killing their handlers, in their wild habitat they are not considered a threat to humans.
Fabric, design, manufacture and condition:
A complete Orcinus Orca (killer whale) skeleton of Old Tom, a member of the Twofold Bay pods of killer whales renowned for hunting in collaboration with shore based whalers.
Old Tom’s measurements are:
Length from nose to flukes – 6.70 metres.
Width of flukes tip to tip – 1.52 metres
Dorsal fin – 1.73 metres
Side fins – 1.37 metres long; 0.76 metres wide.
(Courtesy of the Eden Killer Whale Museum)
The skeleton was originally cleaned, prepared and assembled by master whaler George Davidson and his son Wallace between 1930 and 1931. Since then it has undergone preventive and interventive conservation treatments at various points to ensure its long term survival.
Eden Killer Whale Museum staff, volunteers and visitors; natural historians; scientists; researchers.
Although there are a small number of killer whale (Orcinus Orca) skeletons in international museums, universities and science centres, “Old Tom” is the only complete example in an Australian museum and the only one on public display in the southern hemisphere.
Works depicting/highlighting this object:
Bay Whaling off the Boyd Town Lighthouse, Twofold Bay, NSW, 1848, etching by John Carmichael, National Gallery of Australia collection (accession number NGA 86.1494)
Bay Whaling off the Boyd Town Lighthouse, Twofold Bay, NSW, 1848, etching by John Carmichael, Australian National Maritime Museum (accession number 00005959)
Amateur whaling or a tale of the Pacific, watercolour by Oswald Brierly, Australian National Maritime Museum (accession number 00005660)
The Death Flurry, watercolour by Oswald Brierly, National Library of Australia (accession number 192200)
Whalers off Twofold Bay, New South Wales, watercolour by Oswald Brierly, Art Gallery of New South Wales (accession number 6294)
Whalers at Twofold Bay engraving by Samuel Calvert, form a photograph by Charles Walter, State Library of Victoria
Whales in Sight. A shore whaling party coming out of Twofold Bay, 1844, watercolour by Oswald W. Brierly State Library of NSW, (accession number ML 93)
Bay Whaling off the Boyd Town Light House Twofold Bay NSW by O W Brierly SLNSW a128928h
Series of 13 illustrations from the book The Whalers, painting by Bronwyn Bancroft, Australian National Maritime Museum
The Eden Killer Whale Museum also has numerous historic photographs of Old Tom, his remains and his skeleton as part of their collections.
The particular significance of this Object:
Old Tom’s skeleton is an important, rare and impressive part of the Eden Killer Whale Museum’s collection and has outstanding historic, social, cultural and natural heritage values.
The whaling industry was a crucial social and economic story for the Eden district for more than a century. It was the site of the first shore based whaling station on mainland Australia; was home to the longest running station; and was the last such shore based station to close. The lengthy and well documented involvement of the pods of killer whales that frequented Twofold Bay were a prominent part of this and played a central role for at least a century.
Old Tom’s skeleton provides important tangible evidence of this local whaling heritage. It makes a valuable contribution to the story of the shore based industry in the district over the 19th and early 20th centuries and highlights its worth to the region. Closely associated with one of the district’s earliest, longest and most significant industries, it serves as a crucial reminder of the central role it played in the European settlement and development of the district.
Old Tom’s skeleton is a rare tangible reminder of the pods of killer whales and the unique role they played locally throughout the 19th and early 20th centuries. Representing an essential part of the whaler experience in Twofold Bay, it provides extraordinary insight into the unusual nature of the industry in the area.
It provides valuable generational links with both the Davidson whaling family and the indigenous whalers who worked for them over the years; and offers opportunities to explore the harmonious Aboriginal / European relations prevalent during the Davidson era of the industry.
Closely linked with local indigenous heritage, culture and beliefs, the skeleton has the potential to highlight the ongoing association over hundreds of years between the Aboriginal peoples and the killers; and is an illustration of their relationship with, understanding of and connection to their natural environment.
A rare example of its type, it is the only example of a complete orca skeleton in a public museum collection on the southern hemisphere and one of only a very small number worldwide.
An excellent, reliably provenanced item with an outstanding level of integrity, the skeleton has important natural history, scientific and research value, as indicated by the studies that have already been undertaken on Old Tom and aspects of his remains.
Closely associated with, highly complementary to and forming an integral part of the Eden Killer Whale Museum’s extensive whaling and maritime history collections, Old Tom’s skeleton provides an exceptionally valuable contextual framework for other artefacts, images and archival records not only in that institution but also in other local, state, national and potentially even international collections.
The skeleton has powerful interpretive value with strong links with the maritime, economic, commercial, industrial, social and familial history of the district. It has outstanding potential to highlight, communicate and add to our understanding of a broad range of themes and storylines, including traditional indigenous heritage and culture pre-European settlement; whaling and the role of the killer whales; and the early and ongoing importance of commercial whaling locally and beyond over an extensive time period. It also supports aspects such as transport and the evolution of transport methods; local commercial and industrial history; rural and regional industries; industry development; colonial trade links; labour, work and employment; settling, developing and building the region; the local economy and economic influences; the foundation and growth of the district; and the environment and changing attitudes towards environmental issues.
3. DEVELOPING LOCAL, REGIONAL AND NATIONAL ECONOMIES
Exploiting the aquatic resources of Bega Valley Shire
1: TRACING THE EVOLUTION OF THE NATURAL ENVIRONMENT
2: PEOPLING AUSTRALIA
3: DEVELOPING LOCAL, REGIONAL AN
4: BUILDING SETTLEMENTS, TOWNS AND CITIESD NATIONAL ECONOMIES
8: DEVELOPING AUSTRALIA’S CULTURAL LIFE
9: MARKING THE PHASES OF LIFE
Environment – naturally evolved
Aboriginal cultures and interactions with other cultures
Towns, suburbs and villages
Birth and Death
The Natural Heritage of Bega Valley Shire
Aboriginal people’s cultural heritage and connections to Bega Valley Shire
Economic survival in Bega Valley Shire
Living in Bega Valley Shire
Building and industrial development within Bega Valley Shire
Technological innovation within Bega Valley Shire
Challenging terrains: Getting about in Bega Valley Shire
Constructing townships within Bega Valley Shire
Working in Bega Valley Shire
Religious life in Bega Valley Shire
Sociality in Bega Valley Shire
The phases of life in Bega Valley Shire
Remembering and honouring the people of Bega Valley Shire
Geological and natural heritage – Orcinus orca
First Nations heritage
Settling, developing and building the region
Rural and regional industries
Rural and regional industries – Sealing and whaling
Arts, culture and creative endeavours – Museums and heritage collections
Notable people and families
Geographically associated places / sites:
Eden Killer Whale Museum and collection.
Imlay Street heritage precinct
Associated / linked places / sites / items / people:
Eden Killer Whale Museum and its collections
John Ronaldson Logan
Davidson’s whaling station
Eden Killer Whale Museum
Twofold Bay Development League
Heritage listings (statutory and non-statutory):
Eden Killer Whale Museum, http://killerwhalemuseum.com.au/
In addition to a large number of newspaper and magazine articles, an extensive number of publications have also been produced over the years about the local shore based whaling industry and the Twofold Bay killers, including:
Barrett, Shirley, Rush Oh!, Picador, Australia, 2015
Clode, Danielle, Killers in Eden: The True Story of Killer Whales and Their Remarkable Partnership with the Whalers of Twofold Bay, Allen and Unwin, 2002
Eden Killer Whale Museum, The Killer Chronicles: A Compilation of the Remarkable True Stories of the Killer Whales of Twofold Bay, Eden Killer Whale Museum, 2015
Mumbulla, Percy, Robinson, Roland, and Bancroft. Bronwyn The Whalers, Angus and Robertson, 1996
Contributors to this ‘library’:
Angela George, Pat Raymond and Graham Moore, March 2019.
Acknowledgements, Rights and Permissions:
Acknowledgement of Eden Killer Whale Museum Management Committee Inc., Angela George, Pat Raymond and Graham Moore.
© Angela George. All rights reserved.
References and bibliography:
Australian Dictionary of Biography Online edition
Australian Geographic, Nov. – Dec. 2011
Balf, Reg (Comp.), Shipping in Ports of the Bega Valley Shire Region, unpublished index, n.d.
Barrett, Shirley, Rush Oh!, Picador, Australia, 2015
Bega Gazette and Eden District or Southern Coast Advertiser
Bickford, Anne, Blair, Sandy and Freeman, Peter, Ben Boyd National Park Bicentennial Project Davidson Whaling Station, Boyd's Tower and Bittangabee Ruins, New South Wales National Parks and Wildlife Service, 1988
Blaxland, Gregory, Twofold Bay and Eden, Part 2: Whaling, Afloat, October 2008, https://www.afloat.com.au/afloat-magazine/2008/october-2008/Twofold_Bay_and_Edent#.XH2dbcAzbIU
Brierly, Oswald, Journal and diaries, ML Doc 2262 A 540, 541, 542
Brooks, Margaret, pers. com.
Brown, Bill, The Aboriginal Walers of Eden, ABC South East, 4 July, 2014
Brown, Bill, Killer Whales in Eden on Anniversary of Old Tom’s Death, ABC South East, 21 September 2010
Clarke, Patricia, A Colonial Woman – The Life and Times of Mary Braidwood Mowle, Allen and Unwin Pty Ltd, 1986
Clode, Danielle, Killers in Eden: The True Story of Killer Whales and Their Remarkable Partnership with the Whalers of Twofold Bay, Allen and Unwin, 2002
Colwell, Max, Whaling Around Australia, Adelaide, Rigby, 1969
Davidson, Donald, Davidsons of Kiah: 150 Years Family History of the Eden District and Twofold Bay Whaling, D. Davidson, 1993
Davidson, Rene (comp.), Whalemen of Twofold Bay, R. Davidson, 1988
Department of Environment and Energy, Orcinus Orca – Killer Whale, Orca, Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of Environment and Energy, Canberra, http://www.environment.gov.au/cgi-bin/sprat/public/publicspecies.pl?taxon_id=46
Evans, Kathryn, Shore-based Whaling in Tasmania: a Report for the Parks and Wildlife Service, Parks and Wildlife Service, Tasmania, 1993
George, Angela, The Killing Seas of Eden, Geo Australasia, Vol. 20, No. 4, August 1998
George, Angela, Mud, Floods, and the Birthplace of a Town – Oaklands, Pambula from 1833, Angela George, 2009
Hawkins, H. S. and Cook, R. H., Whaling at Eden With Some ‘Killer’ Yarns, pp. 265 - 273, The Lone Hand - The Australian Monthly, Vol. III, May 1908 - Oct. 1908
Heaton, J. H. Australian Dictionary of Dates and Men of the Times, S. W. Silver and Co., 1879
Historic Eden, Twofold Bay, New South Wales, Eden Tourist Association, 1907
Kerr, Margaret, and Kerr, Colin, Australia’s Early Whalemen, Rigby, 1980
Killer Whales of Eden, New South Wales, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Killer_whales_of_Eden,_Australia
Lawson, Harry, Tom of Twofold Bay, Create Space, 2015
Maitland Mercury & Hunter River General Advertiser
Mackaness, George (ed.) George Augustus Robinson’s Report of Journey Into South Eastern Australia – 1844, with George Henry Haydon’s Narrative of Part of the Same Journey, G. Mackaness, Sydney, 1941
McKenzie, J. Alex. S., (comp.), Whales of Tales, Eden Killer Whale Museum, 1991
Mackenzie, J. A. S., The Twofold Bay Story, Eden Killer Whale Museum and Historical Society, 1991
Mead, Tom, Killers of Eden: The Killer Whales of Twofold Bay, Dolphin Books, Sydney, 2002
Meacham, Steve, The King of the Killers, Sydney Morning Herald, 17 September, 2010
McKee, Greg, Killers of Eden, http://www.killersofeden.com/
Moreton Bay Courier
Mitchell, Mary, Whale Killers of Twofold Bay, M. Mitchell, n.d. [C. 1970]
Mitchell, E. and Baker, A. N. Age of reputedly old Killer Whale, Orcinus orca, 'Old Tom' from Eden, Twofold Bay, Australia, pp. 143–154, Age determination of toothed whales and sirenians, W. F. Perrin and A. C. Myrick Jr (eds.), Reports of the International Whaling Commission, Special Issue 3, Cambridge.
Nash, Michael, The Bay Whalers: Tasmania’s Shore-Based Whaling, Navarine Publishing, n.d. [C. 2003]
National Parks and Wildlife Services, Davidson Whaling Station Historic Site: Plan of Management, Hurstville, NSW, New South Wales National Parks and Wildlife Service, 1995.
Otton, Alice, pers. com.
Pearson, Michael, Shore Based Whaling at Twofold Bay: One Hundred Years of Enterprise, pp. 3-27, Journal of the Australian Historical Society, Vol. 71, No. 1, 1985
Phillipps, G. F., Greig, J. A., and Logan, J., The Founding of the Killer Whale Museum with a Short History of Eden, 2nd ed., Eden Killer Whale Museum, C. 1981
Swinbourne, Helen, and Winters, Judy, Pictorial History Bega Valley Shire, Kingsclear Books, 2001
Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser
Sydney Morning Herald
Twofold Bay and Maneroo Telegraph
Warren, Jack, pers. com.
Weatherhead, Alexander, Leaves From My Life: Being Fifty-six Years’ Experience on the South Coast of New South Wales, Eden Killer Whale Museum, 1984
Wellings, Henry Percival, Benjamin Boyd in Australia (1842 – 1849), H. P. Wellings, n.d. [C. 1970s?]
Wellings, Henry Percival, Eden and Twofold Bay: Discovery, Early History and Points of Interest, 1797 – 1965, H. P. Wellings, n.d. [C. 1966?]
Wellings, Henry Percival, The Imlay Brothers, Eden Killer Whale Museum, 2000
Wellings, Henry Percival, The Killer Whales of Twofold Bay, NSW, Australia, Grampus Orca, pp. 291 – 193, Australian Zoologist, Vol. 10, No. 3, 1944
Wellings, Henry Percival, Shore Whaling at Twofold Bay – Once an Important Industry Now Defunct, H. P. Wellings, 1963
Wells, William Henry, A Geographical Dictionary or Gazeteer of the Australian Colonies, W. and F. Ford, Sydney, 1848