Location of Object:
Off Edrom Road in the Ben Boyd National Park, south of Eden.
Accessibility of Object:
Located in a national park, the tower is accessible 24 hours a day, seven days a week. However, the park does have entry fees and as a self-registration collection system applies, visitors are advised to bring the correct change. Penalties apply for non-payment. Pets and domestic animals (other than certified assistance animals) are not permitted in the park.
History and Provenance of Object:
The Pyrmont sandstone tower standing on the extremity of South Head (or Red Point) was perhaps the most extravagant of the projects entrepreneur Benjamin Boyd undertook during his time in colonial New South Wales.
Designed principally as a landmark at the entrance of the bay, the inscription of Boyd’s name in bold letters at the top of the tower and the care taken over its construction indicates that it was meant to stand as much a symbol of power at the gateway of his empire as a guiding navigational light.
Being heavily interested in maritime concerns and with shipping playing such an integral part of his growing empire, it was unsurprising that Boyd would turn his attention to the construction of navigation beacons to direct his vessels safely into Twofold Bay. According to early local historian H. P. Wellings he reportedly had the Wanderer’s Tower erected on Torargo Point in 1843 before developing plans for what became known as Boyd’s Tower.
Construction of the twenty-three metre (76 foot) tower began in 1845 with stonemason John Helmrich overseeing the monumental project. Although local tradition maintains that the structure was designed by Boyd’s whaling manager Oswald Brierly, it may well have been a standard design known to Helmrich. Experienced in the construction of lighthouses, Boyd’s master stone mason had previously worked on the erection of structures such as the Peter Head Lighthouse at Buchanness and the Aberdeen Lighthouse at Girdleness before immigrating to New South Wales with his wife and son in 1838.
After answering one of Boyd’s newspaper advertisements in 1843 or ‘44 offering labouring families free passage to Twofold Bay, Helmrich was probably initially employed as a stonemason at Boydtown, but in 1846 Brierly noted that he was at work on the Boyd’s Tower project. The following year, Henry Kemble commented that Boyd’s lighthouse, erected by Mr. Helmrich, had occupied nearly three years in building and was “…a credit to him…” Although a small army of labourers would have been involved in the construction, Helmrich appears to be the only one to have been individually identified.
Constructed of sandstone quarried at Pyrmont in Sydney and transported to the area on Boyd’s coastal steamships, the massive blocks were carted from the wharf at Boydtown to the South Head site by bullock teams. A rail track was also reputedly laid to assist with the hauling of the 3 foot by 2 foot blocks weighing around a ton each, sections of which were apparently still visible at the beginning of the 20th century.
Visually divided into five sections by windows placed at intervals down the four sides of the tower, the name “BOYD” was chiselled into the stone of the parapet. Inside, a series of wooden platforms with connecting ladders gave access to the top of the tower. Brierly wrote to Boyd in 1847, reassuring him that the original plans were being adhered to and in September the same year, while on an official visit to Twofold Bay during his coastal survey for the British Government, Captain Owen Stanley inspected the lighthouse, finding it complete as far as the external walls and parapet were concerned.
However, being privately owned, the tower had not been officially sanctioned to use as a lighthouse and the government refused to give permission for its operation. Although Brierly suggested that Boyd might give it to the government, Stanley instead recommended Gabo Island and work began preparing that site in the late 1840s.
Despite this refusal, Boyd instructed Brierly on 3 October 1847 to show a light in the tower and on 21 October Brierly noted “…lighthouse lit for the first time. Had a large sort of three sided lantern made and lighted and watched all night.” He repeated the effort the following night, recording “Light again lighted at lighthouse.” Unaware of this, a group of yachtsmen decided in much more recent years to light Boyd’s Tower – and earned the wrath of officials for their efforts.
Like so many of Boyd’s undertakings, when work on the lighthouse ground to a halt towards the end of 1847 the structure was still incomplete and by 1848 it was being used as a lookout by whaling crews. The most extravagant in scale and expenditure of the many projects inaugurated during his brief foray into colonial life, Brierly estimated that the project had cost his employer more than £2,000, though Boyd himself would have had little idea of the amount involved.
The tower and the land upon which it stood was again offered to the colonial government in September 1860 for the sum of £5,000. Officials however considered the cost prohibitive and instead recommended construction of a lighthouse on the Lookout in Eden. This was completed in 1862.
A sketch of Boyd’s Tower done in the 1860s shows damage to the top western corner of the battlemented parapet, reportedly the result of a lightning strike.
By at least the 1870s, the Davidson family had taken over the landmark and began using it for whale spotting in conjunction with their Kiah Inlet whaling station. A block of sandstone with squares carved into it still lays at the base of the tower, indicating that the whalers may have used it for playing board games to pass the time between whale sightings.
In 1929, at the end of the Davidson’s shore based whaling reign, the “South Head Lighthouse” was advertised for private sale. In 1973 the area was declared a National Park and Boyd's Tower was added to what became known as Ben Boyd National Park in 1976. The site is now administered by the NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service.
The monolith continues to stand on South Head today as a reminder of Benjamin Boyd’s brief and stunningly disastrous speculation in 19th century New South Wales industry and trade.
During a brief but hectic seven year foray into New South Wales business and society, Benjamin Boyd left an indelible mark on virtually all aspects of the colony.
The Scottish entrepreneur sailed from Plymouth, England, on board his luxury schooner Wanderer in December 1841 with grand plans of heading up a business and property empire. Also on board were his brother James as well as a young Oswald Brierly. Already acknowledged as a distinguished marine artist, the pair had probably met as a result of their shared interest in ships and shipping. After attending Henry Sass’s London art school, Brierly went on to study naval architecture and possibly also navigation at Plymouth and it was probably this combined expertise that persuaded Boyd to invite him to join the Wanderer’s entourage for the voyage to Australia.
Boyd’s arrival was highly anticipated in colonial circles so when the Wanderer sailed into Sydney Harbour on 18 July, 1842 it was to cheering crowds, flags conveying messages of welcome and the salute of a cannon. The New South Wales that the party arrived to was in the throes of a devastating financial depression with insolvencies rife and land and livestock available at rock bottom prices. Having at his disposal the funds of the Royal Bank of Australia, Boyd moved quickly to take advantage of the opportunities this offered. Establishing shipping, business, whaling, agricultural and pastoral interests, within two years he had accrued substantial land holdings across New South Wales and Victoria upon which vast herds of livestock were depastured. By the end of 1844 he was one of the largest landholders and graziers in the colony, controlling more than 1,750,000 acres of pastoral land between the Murray and Murrumbidgee Rivers and another 500,000 acres on the Monaro and adjacent areas.
Boyd got his first glimpse of Twofold Bay in December 1842 while travelling along the east coast. When the steamer Seahorse was forced to return to Sydney for repairs, Boyd and his party decided to remain on the Wanderer in Twofold Bay. Recognising its value as a deep sea harbour for his shipping line, its potential as a link between his ocean and land based activities, and its convenient location for coastal and trans-Tasman trade, he immediately set about planning a grand settlement that would form the cornerstone of growing his commercial empire.
Young artist Oswald Brierly, travelling with Boyd and staying on board the Wanderer at Nullica, noted in his journal that “Twofold Bay and the surrounding country was nearly as primitive in its appearance at this time as when Bass first visited in his whale boat in 1797. The coast tribes still wandered along its shores in their opossum cloaks and subsisted principally by hunting the kangaroo and emu or fishing in their small bark canoes upon the lagoons in its neighbourhood. As a part of Australia long unvisited and undescribed by travellers, it had almost the interest of a new country.” He continued that “Our first business upon landing was to make a Large tent with some old sails, and to dig for water, which we easily found within a few feet of the surface near the beach, and having got our things on shore from the steamer, soon had everything very comfortable.”
Then, on 5 January 1843, he reported that “Our camp has increased wonderfully…we now have a large tent capable of accommodating 50 people…a fine bark and slab hut having two apartments…there are two original tents now used by the men. A capital stockyard close to the water has also been got up. Altogether the place begins to bear a very business-like aspect.”
Setting his sights on Twofold Bay for his shipping port and the linchpin of his envisaged maritime and pastoral empire, Boyd purchased 640 acres on the southern shores of Twofold Bay at the district’s first land sales in March 1843. He quickly began developing his self-named Boyd Town settlement, establishing all the necessary convenience for the private township.
With access to the extensive funds of the Royal Bank of Australia, he embarked on a building program and within a year, operations at Boyd Town were well under way. Among the structures either planned or commenced were a commodious hotel, a church, commercial stores, warehouses, a wool store, dwellings and workmen’s cottages, a doctor’s residence, salting works, boiling down works for rendering sheep and cattle into tallow, trying out works for his shore based and deep sea whaling enterprise, wells for fresh water, a 300-foot jetty and lighthouses to cater for his maritime enterprises.
In December 1843, it was announced that “…Settlers on Manaroo can be supplied with stores of every description, at Sydney process. Wool, Sheepskins and Hides taken in exchange...” and in March 1844, a post office was established at Boydtown with Ebenezer Orr appointed Postmaster;
Shipping movements indicate the arrival of materials for the hotel and other buildings associated with the Boyd Town development: in August 1843 the George arrived with 30 ton of stone for the hotel; in May 1844, the Harlequin left Sydney with a cargo that included building material; in April 1846, the Velocity carried 151 pieces of stone and 5,000 feet of cedar from Sydney to Boydtown; and the same month the James and Amelia had on board a cargo that included 15 tons of building material. In June, the Velocity carried 110 tons of building material.
The imposing Seahorse Inn, designed as a pivotal part of the seaport settlement, was commenced within the first year of Boyd’s arrival in the colony. Built mainly of rubble construction with walls reportedly three feet thick, the bricks were burnt within 500 yards of the building while hardwood timber was also pit sawn in the vicinity. In typical Boyd style, materials including Pyrmont sandstone for the entrances and windows, and cedar and oak for the doors, mantles and panelling were imported from Sydney.
In June 1843, it was reported that “Benjamin Boyd, Esq., of the Wanderer, is building a very extensive hotel on the ground he purchased from the government at the late sale, and a large number of mechanics are employed on the work, which is being progressed with as rapidly as circumstances will admit.” The first hotel in the area now encompassed by the Bega Valley Shire, an advertisement in Sydney newspapers announced the same year that “For the convenience of Passengers going to and returning from Maneroo, this Hotel will be completed in a few weeks and will be conducted in a manner calculated to give satisfaction to the public, and as nearly as possible at English prices.”
Five months later, however, the building was still unfinished, and materials and workmen continued to arrive throughout 1843 and 1844. In December 1844, Mary Ann Ponsonby wrote that her husband & son were engaged "plastering a large Hotell [sic]..." at Boyd Town.
Finally, by 1845, the Sea Horse Inn was a going concern, Lawrence Corcoran transferring his publican’s license in June that year to John Abbott, who remained but a short time and when it was renewed in 1846, John A. Kaye was noted as the proprietor.
Mainly Elizabethan in style, with elements of Georgian & Tudor architecture, the inn was reportedly constructed from a sketch plan drawn by Boyd himself. Made up of two main structures totalling 22 rooms, running parallel with each other and joined by a central hallway, the building was surrounded by a brick wall broken by a number of gateways. Taking its name from Boyd's paddle steamer, the Seahorse Inn was able to boast a billiard table, bars, tap room, kitchen, pantry, cellar, dining room, store area, bedrooms and attics, and after Boyd Town became a regular port of call for the vessels plying the coastline between Sydney, Melbourne and Hobart, it provided first class accommodation for visitors and residents.
Boyd had a fleet of vessels with which he planned to serve the colonial market and also established an extensive whaling operation, with nine deep sea whalers operating out of Sydney’s Mosman Bay, and thirty shore-based boats stationed in Twofold Bay. In 1843, he appointed Oswald Brierly as the manager of his whaling enterprise, responsible for supervising the flensing and trying out operations for the lucrative export market. Brierly lived in a cottage, “Merton”, overlooking the bay at East Boyd.
While on one of his infrequent visits in August 1844, Boyd climbed the rise behind the settlement, reportedly commenting to the employees accompanying him on the beautiful view. Suggesting that it would be the ideal spot for a church, plans were submitted to his Sydney office the following month and instructions were given to commence work.
Because other buildings took priority, building work didn’t begin seriously until 1847. At that time walls were erected, the roof shingled and some wooden arched roof supports fabricated. Although it was later described as a “…handsome Gothic Church, the spire of which is visible twenty miles out to sea…” flooring was incomplete, no furniture was ever installed and a bell never tolled from its four-storey tower. Nonetheless, several baptisms were celebrated there between 1844 and 1848 and in 1896, a sacred service was held in the ruins. A number of grave sites remain in the church grounds, the one remaining headstone recording the death of Richard Bell, a convict settler from Manchester who died in September 1847. Further down on the flats from the church, Boyd’s storekeeper Allan McNiven was buried in 1843, his weathered gravestone still in place in 1942, but now no longer extant. Further around at East Boyd, the remains of Aboriginal whaler Oswald Walter Brierly lay.
In 1966, a group of children from the Lutheran Youth Group, who were camping at Boydtown at the time, held a Thanksgiving Service in the ruins of the old church. According to a report on the event “The Church was dressed for the occasion, good earth for carpet, starlit sky for a canopy and full moonlight to guide us and help us to read our passages from the Bible. Candles flickering in the slight breeze and at the Altar a large cross was erected from the branches, and a vase of flowers was placed beside the Bible.” The service was read in both German and English.
Then, in 1976, a marriage was held in the old church ruins, the wedding party celebrating their reception with a nine-course breakfast at the Seahorse Inn.
Like so many others of the period, labour shortages were an ongoing issue for Boyd.
In September 1843, the departure of “Boyd’s gang of workers” from Sydney was recorded; and in March the following year, 43 emigrants including eight carpenters and joiners, four stonemasons and bricklayers, one plasterer, one smith, two stockmen, 14 labourers, women and children departed on the Harlequin bound for Boyd Town.
In addition to the tradesmen hired and brought from Sydney, he also made use of assigned convict labour, the half yearly muster of Ticket-of-Leave holders in 1847 showing that Boyd had four convicts assigned to him, while Oswald Brierly had another ten.
Boyd also turned to the “blackbirding” Pacific Islanders, engaging the ship Velocity to secure Pacific Islander labourers at the cheapest possible rate. More than 200 were landed at Twofold Bay and elsewhere to serve under slave-like conditions on his various pastoral stations.
In April 1847, Boyd engaged William Moutry to act as superintendent of the various works at Twofold Bay. Arriving from Sydney the same year, rather than focusing on existing projects, Moutry moved to erect a residence for himself, selecting a site considered to be one of the finest around the bay but quite remote from Boydtown and his responsibilities there. In addition to his house and two brick-lined wells, Moutry had a summer-house, two servant's buildings and a fowl house constructed on the site, all of which distracted attention and funds from the task given to him by Boyd. Although supposedly monitoring his employer's interests, Moutry debited other local works to cover the rising expenditure incurred by his residence.
By this time, Boyd’s empire was on the verge of collapse, and in 1847 he was replaced by his cousin William Sprott Boyd as the colonial representative of the Royal Bank of Australia. Disillusioned with his employer’s business practices, Brierly accepted an invitation from Captain Owen Stanley to join a survey expedition on board H. M. S. Rattlesnake, taking his leave from Twofold Bay in 1848. The following year, Benjamin Boyd slipped quietly out of Sydney Harbour on board the Wanderer bound for the Californian goldfields. In 1851 he disappeared, reportedly killed, while visiting the Solomon Islands.
By 1847, Henry M. Rucker was listed as the Seahorse Inn's licensee, transferring the business to Anthony Falkner mid-year. In 1848, the new publican advertised that "...Settlers of Maneroo & the surrounding district will find superior accommodation...together with a choice selection of wines, spirits, beers, &c..." Falkner continued to operate the Seahorse Inn until, in the wake of the collapse of Boyd's empire, he applied in 1850 to transfer the license to the Shamrock Inn in the Government township of Eden.
Activities at Twofold Bay largely ceased in 1849, with most buildings still unfinished. So complicated and confused were the accounts associated with many of Boyd’s undertakings, it was not until 1856 that the estate of the Royal Bank was finally placed up for auction.
Fabric, design, manufacture and condition:
Twenty-three metre high tower constructed of Pyrmont sandstone blocks, square in design and tapering towards the top. Parapet is topped by a battlement.
Construction overseen by John Helmrich. Oswald Brierly said to have been the designer, but it is possible that it was built to a standard design.
Local shore based whalers.
1845 – 1847 (incomplete)
The particular significance of this Object:
[Currently under development]
3: DEVELOPING LOCAL, REGIONAL AND NATIONAL ECONOMIES
Challenging terrains: Getting about in Bega Valley Shire
2: PEOPLING AUSTRALIA
3: DEVELOPING LOCAL, REGIONAL AND NATIONAL ECONOMIES
4: BUILDING SETTLEMENTS, TOWNS AND CITIES
8: DEVELOPING AUSTRALIA’S CULTURAL LIFE
9: MARKING THE PHASES OF LIFE
Birth and Death
Settler heritage in Bega Valley Shire
Coming to live in the Bega Valley Shire
Economic survival in Bega Valley Shire
Communicating within the Shire and beyond
Learning the landscapes of Bega Valley Shire
Exploiting the aquatic resources of Bega Valley Shire
Building and industrial development within Bega Valley Shire
Technological innovation within Bega Valley Shire
Challenging terrains: Getting about in Bega Valley Shire
Towns, suburbs and villages
Constructing townships within Bega Valley Shire
Constructing boundaries within Bega Valley Shire
Working in Bega Valley Shire
Creative endeavour in Bega Valley Shire
The phases of life in Bega Valley Shire
Remembering and honouring the people of Bega Valley Shire
Settling, developing and building the region
Settling, developing and building the region – The squatters
Settling, developing and building the region – Convicts and convict labour
Developing the settlements, villages and towns
Land use patterns
Governing and civic history
Transport – Maritime
Transport - Lighthouses and navigation
The development and evolution of transportation methods
Rural and regional industries - sealing and whaling
Law and order – Civic disobedience
Migration, migrant groups and migration journeys – Anglo British
Business and commercial development
The economy and economic influences
The economy and economic influences – 1840s depressions
Labour, working and employment
Arts, culture and creative endeavours
Notable people and families
Associated / linked places / sites / items / people:
Davidson’s Whaling Station
Heritage listings (statutory and non-statutory):
Bega Valley Shire Council Local Environment Plan, Schedule 5, 2013
Contributors to this ‘library’:
Angela George and Pat Raymond, April 2019.
Acknowledgements, Rights and Permissions:
Acknowledgement of Angela George and Pat Raymond.
© Angela George and Pat Raymond. All rights reserved.
References and bibliography:
Australian Daily Journal
Balf, Reg (comp.), Shipping in Ports of the Bega Valley Shire Region, unpublished index, n.d.
Bassett, Marnie, and Smith, Bernard, Brierly, Sir Oswald Walters (1817 – 1894), Australian Dictionary of Biography, National Centre of Biography, Australian National University, 1969 http://adb.anu.edu.au/biography/brierly-sir-oswald-walters-3054
Bell’s Life in Sydney and Sporting Reviewer
Bench of Magistrates, Eden Bench Books, Film 2680
Bickford, Anne, Blair, Sandy and Freeman, Peter, Ben Boyd National Park Bicentennial Project – Davidson Whaling Station, Boyd’s Tower and the Bittangabee Ruins, A Report for National Parks and Wildlife Service, NSW, 1988
Brierly, Oswald, Journal and diaries, ML Doc 2262 A 540, 541, 542
Candelo & Eden Union & South Auckland Advocate
Clarke, Patricia, A Colonial Woman – The Life and Times of Mary Braidwood Mowle, Allen and Unwin Pty Ltd, 1986
Cornell, Bernard, Most Obedient Servants: One Hundred Years of Education in Government and Non-Government Schools, J. Cornell, Cheltenham, NSW, 1994
Cornell, J. B., William Hibburd 1806 - 1889 - Innkeeper and landholder in Southern Monaro, Pambula and the Towamba Valley,
Cox, Phillip, South Coast of New South Wales, Macmillan, Victoria, 1978.
Davidson, R, (comp.) Whalemen of Twofold Bay, Rene Davidson, Eden, 1988
Diamond, Marion, The Seahorse and the Wanderer: Ben Boyd of Boydtown, Melbourne University Press, Carlton, 2nd ed., 1995
Eden Tourist Association, Historic Eden – Twofold Bay, NSW, John Sands Ltd, Sydney, 1907
Financial Genius or Cunning Fraud, Australia’s Heritage, Part 36, pp 846-850
Gardiner, Lyndsay, Eden-Monaro to 1850 – A Regional History, thesis, University of Melbourne, 1951, unpublished manuscript
Hirst, Warwick, Upon and Painted Ocean: Sir Oswald Brierly, State Library of NSW, Sydney, 2004
Hoskins, John. E., Flotilla Australia, http://www.flotilla-australia.com/nsw-other.htm
Loney, Jack, Ben Boyd’s Ships, Neptune Press, 1985.
Mackeness, George (ed.) George Augustus Robinson’s Journey into South Eastern Australia – 1844, with George Henry Haydon’s Narrative of Part of the Same Journey, Review Publications Ltd, 1978
Maitland Mercury & Hunter River General Advertiser
Mead, Tom, Empire of Straw: The Dynamic Rose and Disastrous Fall of Dashing Colonial Tycoon Benjamin Boyd, Dolphin Books, Sydney, 1994
McKee, Greg, Killers of Eden, http://www.killersofeden.com
McKenzie, J. A. S., The Twofold Bay Story, Eden Killer Whale Museum, Eden, 1991
Monaro Pioneers website, http://www.monaropioneers.com
Perkins, J. A., Perkins Papers, 620, 200 (MS936) Monaro District Items, Vol 1, P9 – Vol 5 P. 1571,
Phillips, Valmai, Romance of Australian Lighthouses, Rigby Ltd Publishers, Adelaide, 1977
Ponsonby, Mary Ann, Letter, 6 December, 1844
Shannon, J., Buildings of Eden and Boydtown, Twofold Bay, unpublished university thesis, C. 1969
Supplement, South East Magazine, 22 January, 1979
Swinbourne, Helen and Winters, Judy, Pictorial History: Bega Valley Shire, Kingsclear Books, Alexandria, 2001
Sydney Morning Herald
Sykes, Trevor, Two Centuries of Panic – A History of Corporate Collapses in Australia, Allen and Unwin, Sydney, 1988
Walsh, G. P., Boyd, Benjamin (Ben) (1801 – 1851), Australian Dictionary of Biography, Vol. 1, National Centre of Biography, Australian National University, 1966, http://adb.anu.edu.au/biography/boyd-benjamin-ben-1815
Watson, J. H., Benjamin Boyd, Merchant, Journal and Proceedings of the Australian Historical Society, Vol. 2, part 6, 1907, pp 129-39
Webster, Danny, Police & Early Settlers of the Pambula – Merimbula – Eden Districts of NSW (1788 – 1901), D. P. and Y. E. Webster, Merimbula, C. 1988.
Webster, J., The Last Cruise of the Wanderer, F. Cunninghame, Sydney, C. 1860
Wellings, H. P., Ben Boyd's Labour Supplies, Journal and Proceedings of the Royal Australian Historical Society, Vol 19, part 6, 1933, pp 374-84
Wellings, H. P. Ben Boyd in Riverina, Journal and Proceedings of the Royal Australian Historical Society, Vol. 20, part 2, 1934, pp 114-21
Wellings, H. P., Benjamin Boyd in Australia (1842-1849): shipping magnate, merchant banker, pastoralist and station owner, member of the Legislative Council, town planner, whaler, H. P. Wellings, Bega 1984
Wellings, H. P., Benjamin Boyd's Three Steamers: Seahorse, Cornubia, Juno, Journal and Proceedings of the Royal Australian Historical Society, Vol. 21, part 5, 1935, pp 320-35.
Wellings, H. P., Eden and Twofold Bay – Discovery, Early History and Points of Interest 1797 – 1965, Eden Killer Whale Museum, 1996
Wellings, H. P., Panbula, otherwise "Pampoola", supplement to Pambula Voice, 31 January, 1936
Wellings, H. P., A Sketch of the Romantic Career of Benjamin Boyd: Founder of Boyd Town, Twofold Bay”, H. P. Wellings, Eden, 1928
Wells, William Henry, A Geographical Dictionary or Gazeteer of the Australian Colonies, W. and F. Ford, Sydney, 1848
Wikipedia, Benjamin Boyd, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Benjamin_Boyd
Wikipedia, Oswald Walters Brierly, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oswald_Walters_Brierly
© Angela George and Pat Raymond. All rights reserved.
This Bega Shire Hidden Heritage project has been made possible by the NSW Government through its Heritage Near Me program.
Any further information about this object or any associated histories will be GREATLY welcomed and will be added to the above library of information. Please email your contribution to firstname.lastname@example.org