Collection of Indigenous Flora

Flora Indigenous to Bega Valley Shire

The Story

Title of Object 1: Acacia pedina

No common name

Brief Description of Object:

Acacia pedina is a shrub to small tree to about 5 metres high which grows along the NSW south coast between Wallaga Lake and Tathra, to which area it is more or less confined. It has fissured dark bark at the base on larger plants, smooth grey bark on the branches, broad paddle-shaped bright green hairless phyllodes (“leaves”), sprays of bright yellow flower heads at the tips of the branches in spring, and flat brown seed pods. Although it was first collected in 1915 it was not described as a species until 1999. This is because it was confused with the common and widespread Golden Wattle, Acacia pycnantha. The latter species does not occur on the far south coast.

Location of Object:

Acacia pedina can be found scattered in near-coastal areas between Wallaga Lake and Tathra. When flowering in spring it is very visible on roadsides, but is otherwise easy to overlook. Much of its occurrence is in Mimosa Rocks National Park. It has a strong tendency to occur around the margins of coastal lakes, up to about 50 metres from the shoreline, often hanging out over the edge of the water (Stuart Cameron, Cuttagee resident, pers. comm.), but in these positions it can best be seen from the water. It also occurs in drier sites on low ridges and upper slopes.

Accessibility of Object:

The species is easy to find along the Tathra-Bermagui Road and various side roads providing access to the coast from it, such as the road to Nelson Beach.

Evolutionary History of Object:

Acacia species (wattles) are the largest genus of plants in Australia, representing 18.5% of the Australian vascular flora (i.e. excluding mosses and other more primitive plants). The number of species varies according to the source, and new species are still being described, but one source placed the number of species at 1210 as of late 2018 ( This is considerably more than the 800 or so species of the genus Eucalyptus which is usually described as being the most successful genus of plants in Australia. Certainly the eucalypts dominate most forest communities in Australia due to their (mostly) larger size than wattles, with the latter usually confined to the understorey. However in the arid inland the tables are turned with large areas being occupied by Acacia woodlands, with species such as Gidgee (A. cambagei), Weeping Myall (A. pendula) and Mulga (A. aneura), mostly in areas where the rainfall is below 350mm per year. However in Queensland, Brigalow (A. harpophylla) forest, prior to clearing for agriculture, reached almost to the coast in areas with 900mm per year rainfall (Groves, 1994). Despite their structural dominance of the arid zone, the number of wattle species in these areas is relatively low. The two main zones of wattle species diversity in Australia are south-west Western Australia (not surprisingly as this is a mega-diverse area botanically) and the Great Dividing Range and associated rugged country of the south-east. Bega Valley Shire is part of this area, and has around 42 naturally occurring wattle species and subspecies, as well as a handful of planted or naturalised species from other areas.

There are around 1380 species of wattles world-wide, with the group also present in Africa, South and Central America and the southern United States and southern Asia. This distribution indicates a Gondwanan origin for this plant group. The splitting of Gondwana occurred in the cretaceous period 136 million years ago (Ma) when the southern continents Australia, Antarctica, India, South America and Africa which had comprised the great southern land mass separated and began their northward drift, with their cargo of shared plant families. With connections between the continents severed, the plant families could begin to evolve along separate lines. Within Australia speciation was also encouraged by the incursion of an inland sea, dividing the country into four islands in the Cretaceous period.

Australia remained relatively moist and covered in rainforest up until the Tertiary period (65 Ma) but after that much of the evolutionary impetus was provided by increasing aridity, with the result that wattles in Australia (and a few that have spread to the Pacific islands) developed a feature not found in other countries. This is the replacement of real leaves with the modified (flattened and expanded) leaf stalk, termed a phyllode. The majority of Australian wattles have phyllodes, although the true leaves which are bipinnate (twice-divided) are always present in seedlings. They are replaced by phyllodes as the seedling grows, sometimes very rapidly, sometimes being retained on the tips of the phyllodes on quite large saplings (for example in the local species Blackwood (A. melanoxylon) and A. rubida). Phyllodes have been demonstrated to function much better than true leaves in retaining water in drying conditions. Brodribb and Hill (1993) compared the performance of true leaves and phyllodes of Blackwood, and found that phyllodes survived longer and photosynthesised more efficiently under conditions of moisture stress. Their usefulness in Australian conditions is obvious. The great majority of the Australian bipinnate wattles only occur on the relatively well-watered east coast and ranges.

African wattles have all retained bipinnate foliage and many have thorns to discourage large herbivores such as giraffes and gazelles from eating the foliage. Thorniness is much less common in Australian wattles.

Social History of Object:

Wattles generally in SE NSW

Acacia pedina is not known to have had any particular use to Aboriginal residents of the south coast, but it is possible it may have done. Wattles in general had various uses in Aboriginal Australia, including the production of food. The seeds of some species such as the local Coast Wattle (A. longifolia subsp. sophorae) are edible, either raw when still green or roasted once ripe (although some wattle species are poisonous, so local knowledge would be crucial to exploit this food resource). An edible gum is exuded from the trunks of some species, and production of this could be encouraged by notching the tree trunk. This was used as food while still pale and chewy, before it became hard and astringent. Bathing in a decoction of Blackwood (A. melanoxylon) bark has been recorded as a treatment for rheumatism (Low, 1990). Some species also provided tough bark for string making, hard timber for tools, and of course firewood (Low, 1988).

To European settlers wattles became a valuable source of tannin for tanning leather, and the Bega Valley had a considerable tanbark industry based on Black Wattle (A. mearnsii). Golden Wattle (A. pycnantha) has a high concentration of tannin in the bark, and it is possible that the closely related A. pedina is also a good source, but the relatively small size of the plants and their limited distribution in the region meant that Black Wattle was the principle commercially exploited species locally, and throughout south-eastern Australia.

In 1926 the far south coast of NSW was described as one of the chief sources of wattle bark in NSW (Anon, 1926, cited in Searle, 1991). In the Eden district wattle bark had been an important commodity since 1821, becoming an item of commerce in 1830. It was reported in 1926 that a factory on the Pambula-Wyndham road was extracting tannins from wattle bark and sending them to market in concentrated form. A 1953 report stated that the industry in Eden had retained its early importance, becoming more efficient with the introduction of grinding mills (Wellings, 1953, cited in Searle, 1991). In other areas A. pycnantha and A. decurrens were used, although the small size of the former made it less desirable. Silver Wattle (A. dealbata), present locally along the top of the coastal escarpment, was also used to some extent, but its tannin yield was relatively low (Searle, 1991). Black Wattle, being a common and widespread species with a high tannin yield, supported the bulk of the industry. As wild populations were decimated (the removal of the bark killed the trees) there were calls for plantations to be established. One of these, the East Boyd plantation, was established in 1917, apparently in the Moruya area (Searle, 1991) but as wildfires occurred in that area not long after and no further reference was made to this plantation in historical sources, it may have been burnt out. There was considerable research into Black Wattle cultivation and genetic selection in southern Australia in the early twentieth century, but several factors contributed to the demise of this industry. The depletion of the natural resource and a reluctance on the part of landowners to plant wattles meant that better uses for the land were found, such as growing of the more profitable commodities meat and wool, or on the far south coast, dairy products. By the 1960s pasture improvement had increased the edge which pastoral pursuits had over wattle bark production. The availability of labour to strip the bark also became problematic, although there was a temporary surge in wattle stripping during the Great Depression of the early 1930s.

A. mearnsii and A. pycnantha had been planted in South Africa, with wattle plantations likely to be much more successful there due to the absence of the plants’ native pests and diseases. The country also had a large pool of cheap labour. South African tannin factories came into production in 1916 and Australian imports from South Africa were recorded in 1920-21. By the 1960s tannin production in Australia had dropped back to being a small scale local industry and it disappeared by the early 1970s (Searle, 1991). Australian leather production also declined in the face of cheaper imports and replacement of leather with synthetic substitutes. Tannin eventually also came to be replaced by faster acting chemicals such as chromium in tanning. Consequently the wattle bark industry is no more, at least in Australia.

Discovery of Acacia pedina

Although the first specimen of Acacia pedina was collected in 1915 by W. Dunn at the “head of Cuttagee Creek, Bermagui, on slopes”, (Australia’s Virtual Herbarium, consulted March 2019), it was not described until 1999. Up until then it had been regarded as being part of the widespread and variable species Golden Wattle (A. pycnantha), which occurs from eastern South Australia through most of Victoria and into south-western NSW, with occasional scattered occurrences further north in NSW (AVH, consulted March 2019).

The next specimen of this species was not collected until 1952 (M. Bowyer, “Tanja State Forest south-west of Bermagui”) and this was followed by a rash of collections in the 1970s and 1990s. The number of collections of this and other local species in these decades suggests several collecting trips made by NSW Herbarium staff from the Sydney Royal Botanic Gardens to the south coast. Several collections of this species were also made by local amateur botanist Margaret Parris (1915-1999). Mrs Parris was an enthusiastic collector who roamed widely on the south coast, southern tablelands and alps. Her husband Cyril worked as an engineer on the Snowy Hydro Scheme in Cooma until they retired to Merimbula. Her collecting history spanned at least the period from 1977 to 1983 (National Herbarium of NSW archives), although the recollection of Neil Fisher, a local horticulturalist who often accompanied her on her explorations from about 1986, is that she was still collecting up to a couple of years before her death. Her work resulted in the discovery of at least four new species, three of which were named after her (Pomaderris parrisiae, Pultenaea parrisiae and Zieria parrisiae). The fourth was the Rhyolite Midge Orchid, Genoplesium rhyoliticum, which is restricted to a few rhyolite rock outcrops in the Nullica-Yowaka area west of Pambula. All four species are listed as threatened, and Margaret’s work was instrumental in getting the Yowaka Section of South East Forest National Park extended to include many of the rhyolite outcrops (Neil Fisher, pers. comm.).

Philip Kodela is a specialist in Acacia working at the National Herbarium of NSW and Terry Tame is a school teacher with a lifelong interest in Australian plants, who after retirement volunteered at the Hunter Region Botanic Gardens. He is the author of the book Acacias of Southeast Australia (1992). Both made collections of A. pedina in the area, and in 1999 they published its description as a species distinct from A. pycnantha in Telopea, the taxonomic journal of the Sydney Royal Botanic Gardens (Kodela & Tame, 1999). The name A. pedina refers to the broad, paddle-shaped phyllodes which distinguish this species from A. pycnantha, although the juvenile foliage of A. pycnantha is similar to that of A. pedina. The name is from the Greek, pedinos, pertaining to the blade of an oar.

They describe A. pedina as growing in clayey loams derived from weathered shales, on hillslopes and near creeklines, on and inland of headlands in eucalypt open forests often dominated by Spotted Gum (Corymbia maculata) and also in open forest of Bangalay (Eucalyptus botryoides) on flat to gently undulating areas behind coastal dunes, from Bermagui south to near Tathra. The range of the species is said to be no more than 30 km. Because of this limited area of occurrence and its proximity to populated areas, and despite much of its occurrence being in conservation reserves, they allocated it a Conservation Rating (Briggs and Leigh 1996) of 2RC. This indicates a geographic range of less than 100 km, that the plant is rare, and that there is at least one population within a conservation reserve. They did not take their assessment of its conservation status to the next level of determining whether it was adequately reserved (a, 1000 plants or more known to occur in a conservation reserve), inadequately reserved (i, less than 1000 plants in a reserve) or unknown (-, reserved population size is not accurately known), but one could safely assume that the population size was, and still is, largely unknown. Despite this the species has never been proposed for listing as a threatened species in NSW. Since it was not described until 1999 it missed out on being listed as a ROTAP (Rare or Threatened Australian Plant) by Briggs and Leigh (1996), and then on being automatically transferred onto the Schedules of the Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995 in NSW, as were many other species, including the local Acacia georgensis.

In 1998 there was an additional collection of A. pedina from outside its stated range. This was made by K.M. Gowland and lodged at the Australian National Herbarium in Canberra (AVH, consulted March, 2019), so may have been catalogued too late to be included by Kodela and Tame in their paper. The latitude and longitude given for this collection indicate it came from Wagonga Scenic Drive where it crosses Cowdroy Creek, north-west of Narooma. This would extend its range by about another 25 km northwards.

West of Bombala and near Queanbeyan are the closest points to which the distribution of A. pycnantha approaches the south coast according to Kodela and Tame. There are local records of it on Australia’s Virtual Herbarium, but these are either records which should have been converted to A. pedina but have not been (R. Coveny, 1975, 1 mile west of Tanja on the Bega-Bermagui road) or they have been misplaced on the map, so that although the record appears to be in Eurobodalla Shire, the accompanying notes indicate that it was collected further west on the tablelands (J.D. Briggs, 1988, 2.7 km SE of the summit of Mt Dowling). The species list accompanying this record indicates it is in dry tablelands forest with Eucalyptus macrorhyncha, E. rossii and E. dives, not a combination of species which would be found in Eurobodalla Shire. One more record on AVH is less obviously an error, an undated but fairly old collection held at the Australian National Herbarium and collected by J. Common, identified by Nancy Burbidge from “range west of Moruya”. However, an accuracy of +/- 25km suggests that this could have been collected on the tablelands.

A further plot twist regarding the distribution of A. pycnantha and A. pedina comes from the occurrence of a very similar looking plant to those on the far south coast in East Gippsland, to which Kodela and Tame refer in their paper. The variation in A. pycnantha across its range in Victoria was the subject of an Honours thesis by Bernadette Sandercock in 1997, but she and her supervisor stopped short of splitting the species in Victoria. In the Flora of Victoria treatment of Acacia (Entwisle, Maslin, Cowan and Court, 1996) A. pycnantha is still referred to as a widely distributed and variable species, with none of the variants split off into other species or subspecies. This has not changed in the more up to date on-line version of the Flora of Victoria, nor is there apparently any intention to investigate further the relationship of the East Gippsland variant of A. pycnantha to A. pedina (Neville Walsh, Melbourne National Herbarium, pers. comm.).

Wattle Day

The history of wattle as an emblem of Australia can be traced back as far as 1838 in Hobart Town, when the citizens wanted to celebrate the anniversary of the discovery of Van Dieman’s Land by Abel Tasman in 1642. The Colonial Times of November 20, 1838 suggested the adoption of a sprig of wattle as a national emblem. This predated the move towards Federation by about 50 years (Hitchcock, 2010). The festivities were held in Wattle Park and a public holiday was declared.

A feeling of patriotism towards their new country was strengthened in the lead up to Federation in 1901. The Canadians had adopted the maple leaf as an emblem, which prompted the call for wattle blossom to become the Australian national emblem. In 1908 a ‘Wattle Club’ was formed in Melbourne and Archibald James Campbell advocated the honouring of a Wattle Day. In 1909 J.H. Maiden, Government Botanist and Director of the Sydney Botanic Gardens took up the call, with the aim of forming a Wattle Day League and persuading the States to coordinate in celebrating Wattle Day on 1 September, the first day of spring. Wattle was considered suitable as the emblem for such a day because of its ubiquity in the Australian landscape. No matter where one lived, it was likely to be possible to find a species of wattle in flower on that date.

The first Wattle Day was celebrated in 1910 in Sydney, Melbourne and Adelaide, with activities such as the planting of wattles in school grounds and the sending of sprays of wattle blossom to the Governor, Members of Parliament, newspaper editors and other notables. In 1911 Adelaide was described as “a city decked with gold”, and the practice of selling wattle to raise money for charities was begun.

In 1913 the Commonwealth Government Gazette, No. 3, showed an illustration of the Commonwealth Arms featuring wattle blossom. Proclamation of the emblem was in train, but was dropped on the outbreak of World War 1. Wattle Day continued to be used for fund raising for the war effort by the Red Cross and Patriotic Fund, but the official proclamation of Golden Wattle (A. pycnantha) as our national emblem was shelved until 1988. Wattle Day in NSW was shifted to 1 August to ensure an adequate supply of wattle blossom on the day. Planting of Cootamundra Wattle (A. baileyana) had become popular around Sydney, and this winter flowering species was more likely to be in flower in August than September. Other states stuck with the original timing on the first day of spring.

With the end of World War 1 Wattle Day became mainly a school celebration, but fundraising continued to be an important feature of the day. It was less significant in World War II and observance of the day gradually died out.

During the 1980s, with increasing environmental awareness, planting of trees again became a popular community activity and schools were encouraged to participate. There have been moves to reinstate Wattle Day, particularly around 1988, when the National Floral Emblem was finally gazetted in Australia’s bicentenary year. A ceremony was held on 1 September 1988 at the Australian National Botanic Gardens when the Minister for Home Affairs, Robert Ray, made the formal announcement, and the Prime Minister's wife, Mrs Hazel Hawke, planted a Golden Wattle.

Four years later, in 1992, 1 September was formally declared 'National Wattle Day' by the Minister for the Environment, Mrs Ros Kelly at another ceremony at the Australian National Botanic Gardens.

There have been various activities such as wattle walks in Botanic Gardens and the selling of wattle day badges, but as a national day of celebration of Australian identity, the day has taken a back seat to Australia Day.

The wearing of a sprig of wattle is still used on public occasions when people want to honour being Australian in an emotive way. For example then Prime Minister John Howard wore a sprig of wattle at the Bali bombing memorial service, and in 1999 when some Australian canyoners died in Switzerland, the Governor-General, Sir William Deane, gave the families wattle to throw into the canyon to honour the dead.

It has usually been the practice to use wattle of whatever species is in flower at the time, rather than Golden Wattle specifically. It has been planted in some areas to which it is not native, such as Western Australia, to provide a local source of blossom. However, as many wattles are inclined to be weedy when planted outside their natural range, the use of local species is probably preferable. Since the majority of wattles flower in later winter and early spring, there is always likely to be something available.

Maria Hitchcock, of the Australian Plants Society, was a strong proponent of the reinstatement of Wattle Day and the information above comes from the text of an address given by her at the Centenary Wattle Day Dinner in Canberra on 1 September 2010.

In 1909 there was some disagreement about the national floral emblem, with the waratah (Telopea speciosissima) having its adherents, presumably mostly from Sydney, since the natural distribution of this species is confined to the Sydney Basin. The conflict which existed about the choice of the Australian national flower is seen in the inclusion of both waratah and wattle flowers as decoration on the three golden trowels used by the Governor General, Lord Denman, the Prime Minister, the Rt Hon. Andrew Fisher and the Minister for Home Affairs, the Hon. King O'Malley, for the laying of foundation stones of the commencement column in Canberra on 12 March 1913. Recently the NSW Government has adopted the Waratah as its symbol. It would hardly have been a suitable choice for the same use as a wattle sprig, given the large size of the Waratah flowers, their limited distribution and difficulty of cultivation. The ubiquitous wattle was a much more practical choice.

The splitting of Acacia as a genus

English botanist and gardener Philip Miller adopted the name Acacia in 1754. The generic name is derived from the name given by early Greek botanist-physician Pedanius Dioscorides (middle to late first century) to the medicinal tree A. nilotica in his book Materia Medica. This name derives from the Ancient Greek word for its characteristic thorns. The species name nilotica was given by Linnaeus from this tree's best-known range along the Nile river. Acacia nilotica became the type (the first named species) of the genus (

By the early 21st century it was becoming apparent to plant taxonomists that the very large genus Acacia, with around 1300 species worldwide, was too broad and needed to be split. As the type specimen for the genus came from Africa, by the international rules of nomenclature this meant that African species closely related to A. nilotica could stay in the genus Acacia, (now with only 160 species) and Australia, with the lion’s share of the 1300 species, would need to adopt a new name. Another name which had been applied to Australian Acacias by Queensland botanist Les Pedley (1986) was Racosperma, but this had not been accepted by many taxonomists and had not come into general use.

There was quite a fuss in botanical and horticultural circles, and among plant people generally over the idea of changing almost all Australian wattles to Racosperma. Not only was the new genus name required, but as Racosperma is a different gender to Acacia in Latin, the species name would need to be corrected as well. This is best explained by Bruce Maslin, one of the authors of a proposal to retain the name Acacia for Australian species:

“The name Racosperma has a neuter gender so if this name is adopted then the endings of the names of most current species, subspecies and varieties will have to change. For example. Acacia pycnantha would become Racosperma pycnanthum, Acacia axillaris would become Racosperma axillare, and so on. This will add substantially to the costs of herbaria and other institutions that have to update records because it will not be a simple 'global replace' of Acacia to Racosperma, each taxon will have to be considered individually. Furthermore, a potential source of confusion will be introduced, through those (non-classically aware) who interpret Racosperma as feminine and try to match the termination accordingly. Thus Racosperma angustum would be the correct form of the name of the species, but inevitably many will "correct" this to Racosperma angusta. This would be repeated across nearly 1000 new combinations.” (Maslin, 2003).

Not only herbaria would have been affected. As many wattles have made it into the horticultural trade, the cost of discarding old labels and printing new ones would have been rather large (a cost that nurserymen are accustomed to, due to regular name changes by botanical taxonomists, though never before on this scale).

Fortunately common sense prevailed (not always the case where scientific nomenclature is concerned). Australian botanists Bruce Maslin and Tony Orchard proposed the retypification of the genus with an Australian species (A. penninervis) instead of the original African type species, an exception to traditional rules of priority which had to be ratified by the International Botanical Congress in 2005. That decision was controversial, and debate continued, but a second International Botanical Congress in 2011 confirmed the decision to apply the name Acacia to the mostly Australian plants. The traditional acacias of Africa have been placed in Senegalia and Vachellia, and some of the American species in Acaciella and Mariosousa. Only 15 of a total of about 990 species in Australia (as of 2011) were affected by the name change. These are thorny and prickly acacias occurring mostly in tropical northern Australia.

The particular Statement of Significance for this Object:

A. pedina is naturally rare and largely confined to Bega Valley Shire (depending on one’s view of East Gippsland populations of a very similar looking wattle). It is not listed as threatened. Its significance lies largely in the fact that it is found almost nowhere else, though the fact that there is one record from Eurobodalla Shire (north-west of Narooma) suggests it extends a little to the north of Bega Valley Shire. Unlike many wattles, including the similar A. pycnantha, it has not been brought into cultivation, so it is unlikely to be encountered outside its area of natural occurrence.

Physical Condition: Not applicable. A. pedina occurs largely in relatively undisturbed forest settings.

Other geographically associated places / sites: None

Heritage listings (statutory and non-statutory): None

Works depicting/highlighting this object:

Historic photographs of this object:

Title of Object 2: Acacia georgensis

Common name: Bega Wattle or Dr George Wattle

Brief Description of Object:

Acacia georgensis is a small tree to about 10 metres high which grows along the NSW south coast and adjacent ranges between Belowra west of Narooma and Burragate, to which area it is confined. That is, it is a far south coast endemic, as far as is currently known. It has fissured bark on the trunk, grey-green curved phyllodes (“leaves”), pale yellow rod-type flower heads in spring, and narrow brown seed pods. Although it was first collected in 1913 it was not described as a species until 1980. At that time it was known to occur at only one location, on the crest of Dr George Mountain east of Bega. Since then it has been discovered in small stands scattered around Tathra, and in several widely separated locations in the hinterland ranges out the back of Burragate, Bemboka, Brogo, Yowrie and Belowra. All these latter occurrences are in National Parks.

Location of Object:

Acacia georgensis can be seen most easily south of Kianinny Bay in Bournda National Park. The steep steps at the start of the Kangarutha Track pass through a mixed stand of this wattle and the small tree Melaleuca armillaris, which typically forms pure stands on coastal cliffs. This mixed stand is very unusual. There are a couple of other stands further south along the track as well. The top of Dr George Mountain is also reasonably accessible, although the short track up to the trig point from Dr George road has to be walked, not driven, as it is steep and rutted with nowhere to turn at the top. One advantage of the Dr George trig site is that it carries quite a range of uncommon species, including the local endemic mallee, Eucalyptus spectatrix.

Accessibility of Object:

The two sites described above are readily accessible to a person with no mobility problems. There are a couple of populations above the Bournda Lagoon walking track, as it passes along the north side of the upper end of the lagoon. Only one of them is visible from the track, which passes through the lower end of the population about 1.5 km west from the start of the track. The Yowrie population is located immediately below Bourkes Road in Wadbilliga National Park 13 km west of Yowrie, but is on very steep rocky ground. Most other sites require a 4 wheel drive vehicle, advance knowledge of where to look and the preparedness to bush bash to find them. Some of the populations around the Brogo Dam can be seen from a boat, or on a short hike from the upper limit of navigability up the Nelsons Creek arm of the dam or where the Brogo River enters it.

Evolutionary History of Object: Refer to above section

Social History of Object: Refer to above section

Detailed description:

The first specimen of Acacia georgensis was collected in 1913 by W.D. Francis with the locality details only recorded as “Tathra, Bega district”, (Australia’s Virtual Herbarium, consulted March 2019). Presumably the latitude and longitude provided with this record gave subsequent botanical collectors a better hint than that on where to look for it. There were numerous collections from the vicinity of Dr George Mountain trig point in the 1970s and 1980s (AVH, consulted March 2019). The species was formally described by Mary Tindale, along with 6 other rare and restricted wattles mostly from the south coast and ranges, in Telopea, the taxonomic journal of the Sydney Royal Botanic Gardens (Tindale, 1980). Mary Tindale (D. Sc., 1920-2011) was a botanist at the National Herbarium of NSW at the Sydney Royal Botanic Gardens, from which she retired in 1983. She specialised in ferns and the legume genera Acacia and Glycine (Wikipedia, When her paper was published, A. georgensis was still known from a single location, from which it takes its specific name. She described it as resembling A. cheelii (not a south coast species) but distinguished by several features including the corrugated bark towards the base in older trees, pale yellow inflorescences up to 3.5 cm long held singly or in pairs in the axil of each phyllode, and the scurfy pods. A. georgensis flowers in August to October and fruits in December. Its habitat is described as Dr George Mountain near Bega, “locally abundant on granite hillsides in tall dense scrub on rather dry slopes exposed to the north-west”. There is a slight error here, in the use of the plural, since it appears that in fact at this site it occurs on a single slope to the north-west of the trig point. Inaccurate location details on collections may have lead Dr Tindale to assume there was more than one occurrence.

The number of collections of this and other local species in the decades 1970 to 1990 suggests several collecting trips made by NSW Herbarium staff from the Sydney Royal Botanic Gardens to the south coast during this period. Several collections of this species were also made by local amateur botanist Margaret Parris (1915-1999). Mrs Parris was an enthusiastic collector who roamed widely on the south coast, southern tablelands and alps. Her husband Cyril worked as an engineer on the Snowy Hydro Scheme in Cooma until they retired to Merimbula. Her collecting history spanned at least the period from 1977 to 1983 (National Herbarium of NSW archives), although the recollection of Neil Fisher, a local horticulturalist who often accompanied her on her explorations from about 1986, is that she was still collecting up to a couple of years before her death. Her work resulted in the discovery of at least four new species, three of which were named after her (Pomaderris parrisiae, Pultenaea parrisiae and Zieria parrisiae). The fourth was the Rhyolite Midge Orchid, Genoplesium rhyoliticum, which is restricted to a few rhyolite rock outcrops in the Nullica-Yowaka area west of Pambula. All four species are listed as threatened, and Margaret’s work was instrumental in getting the Yowaka Section of South East Forest National Park extended to include many of the rhyolite outcrops (Neil Fisher, pers. comm.). She also exerted pressure to prevent the small local radio transmission facility serving Bega Valley Shire Council and the Rural Fire Service on Dr George Mountain being joined by a larger Telstra facility in the middle of the A. georgensis stand. This was located elsewhere (Briggs, 1990).

Margaret made the first collection of A. georgensis from a site other than Dr George trig in 1984 (AVH, consulted March 2019). This was the Kianinny Bay site. It was a long time before it was found anywhere else. A couple of additional occurrences on the Kangarutha Track south of Kianinny were confirmed by retired botanist Dane Wimbush of Bermagui, in 1999 when he was a member of the Recovery Team set up by NSW NPWS for this species and four other threatened plants of rocky outcrops in south-east NSW (Robyn Wimbush, pers. comm.). The species was listed as a ROTAP species (Rare or Threatened Australian Plant) by Briggs and Leigh (1996), and then automatically transferred onto the Schedules of the Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995 in NSW as a Vulnerable species. It is also listed as Vulnerable under the Federal Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1992.

Several other records of Acacia georgensis were held by the National Parks and Wildlife Service but were probably not supported by herbarium collections, since they do not appear in Australia’s Virtual Herbarium. The records were made by Robert Outhred, who undertook botanical surveys in Wadbilliga NP, possibly in the 1980s. They were followed up and confirmed in 2001 by Jackie Miles under contract to NPWS.

One of the reasons that most additional populations were not found until 2001 was that the species is quite easy to confuse with another small tree wattle which also has rough fissured bark and a preferred habitat of rocky hill crests and cliff tops with shallow soils and little competition from other trees such as eucalypts. This is the Coast Myall, Acacia binervia, formerly more appropriately named A. glaucescens because of its very silvery (glaucous) phyllodes, with a dense coat of appressed (lying flat against the surface) white hairs. The foliage of A. georgensis can look silvery from a distance, but is more grey-green when seen close to, and it has scurfy silvery or rusty scales on the new growth, which wear off leaving the surface more or less hairless. Although Tindale described A. georgensis as being most closely allied to A. cheelii, it could never be confused with that species in the field as their ranges are widely separated, with A. cheelii only found on the tablelands and slopes in the northern half of the state. A. binervia, on the other hand, does approach the distribution of A. georgensis. It grows in similar rocky habitat “south from the Hunter Valley and inland to Bungonia” (Kodela and Harden, 2002), in fact extending south nearly to the Victorian border west of Bombala on the tablelands, but with no far south coast occurrences (J. Miles, pers. obs.). The fact that these two species have been confused in the past is suggested by the fact that in the first edition of the Flora of NSW A. binervia was described as occurring north of about Tathra, an obvious reference to the Kianinny occurrence of A. georgensis. This was corrected in the 2nd edition. Despite this a few records of A. binervia remain on Australia’s Virtual Herbarium within or near the range of A. georgensis, and it is quite likely that if investigated they would also turn out to be A. georgensis. They are located north-west of Brogo Dam on Galoon Creek (2 collections, 1984 and 1992), in the Belowra area (1899) and on the western side of Deua National Park inland from Moruya (1999). The latter occurrence, if it is A. georgensis, would extend the range another 40 km north from Belowra, on top of the approximately 70 km span currently known (NSW NPWS, 2002).

Given the substantially increased known range since the species was first listed as threatened, it would be tempting to think that A. georgensis could be pronounced secure and delisted, especially since almost all the occurrences are in National Parks. Since these National Parks are extensive and rugged, and given the occasional discovery of a previously unknown population, even quite close to populated areas like those around Tathra, it would also be reasonable to assume that we still do not know the full extent of the species’ occurrence. However, climate change, if it results in increased frequency of droughts and fires, could represent a threat to this species. It always grows in areas with very shallow soils, frequently on cliff tops, where prolonged or severe drought could be lethal. Observations in the Desert Creek catchment and around Brogo Dam in the period since 2000 suggest that there have been episodes of death of mature trees in that time, probably starting during the extremely hot, dry summer of 1997-98. These are followed by recruitment of new young plants, but if drought frequency becomes too great, then this species could eventually be replaced in these locations by smaller shrubs which can complete their life cycle and produce seeds more rapidly. A. georgensis has been observed to flower while still much less than a fully grown tree, but it still requires more years to mature and begin producing a useful amount of seed than would the average shrub, and this will put it at a disadvantage in drying climatic conditions.

In addition to killing some plants, drought also makes it less likely that the population will produce any seed in those seasons. A. georgensis can flower profusely in a wet year, but has been observed dropping unformed flowers in the dry spring of 2018 and it has proven to be a difficult species from which to collect seed. It was one of 11 species which were targets in a fundraising walk undertaken by Sydney botanists and supporters in 2016 (Sydney Morning Herald, April 9, 2016). The walkers hoped to raise $44,000 to fund seed collection efforts for 11 threatened NSW plants. The seed was to be stored at PlantBank, which is housed at Mt Annan Botanic Gardens in Sydney, and aims to store seed of as many NSW plant species as possible. The distance from Sydney of A. georgensis populations and the apparent reluctance of the plant to produce much seed in many seasons meant that it was still poorly represented in the collection, even though the plant itself is probably much less rare than the other ten species targeted.

Fires also represent a threat. Several populations were affected by fire in 2018. The Tathra-Reedy Swamp fire in March 2018 burnt a population in the Vimy Ridge area on Dr George Mountain, though not any of the ones at or south of Kianinny, nor at Dr George trig. The Kianinny population had been burnt in the summer of 1979-80 (M. Parris, pers. comm. to Briggs, 1990), and Briggs reported that the western part of this site had been burnt again just prior to his survey there in 1986.

Populations in the Desert Creek catchment are likely to have all been burnt at high intensity on the first, extremely windy, day of the Yankees Gap Road fire in August 2018 and populations around Brogo Dam were at least partially affected by the backburns lit over the ensuing six weeks or so to contain this fire (J. Miles, pers. obs). Although many Australian plants can resprout after fire, either from the branches, the trunk, a lignotuber (buried woody mass) or the roots, A. georgensis is not one of these species. Many wattles are what is known as “obligate seeders”, incapable of resprouting after a fire, and forced to recover by production of new seedlings. Their seeds are well adapted to this, being protected by a hard seed coat which enables the seed to remain viable in the soil for years or decades. Many of these obligate seeders live in fire-prone habitats such as heath and dry forests and have a relatively short life cycle. They germinate soon after a fire from soil-stored seed, after the heat of the fire softens the hard seed coat. The release of nutrients in ash enables them to grow rapidly and often in large numbers and many flower within their first growing season. They can therefore produce seed within a year or two of fire, just in case another fire happens again fairly soon, and often they die within a decade or so if there isn’t another fire. A. georgensis does not fit this life cycle pattern. As a tree, it is slower to grow to maturity and produce seed, so frequent fire could eliminate it. Its rocky habitat tends to prevent this happening because fuel accumulates more slowly under the sparse vegetation of the cliff tops and rocky slopes where it lives, and the presence of a lot of surface rock slows the spread of fires. This means that a low intensity fire is more likely to go out on the edge of its habitat, burning the adjacent forest but leaving the wattle scrub unaffected. In these circumstances A. georgensis may even manage to extend its range into the adjacent eucalypt forest by producing new young plants within the eucalypt forest edge while the forest canopy has been opened up by fire. However, an increase in high intensity fires, especially if combined with more frequent or more severe droughts, could make life very insecure for this species.

The particular Statement of Significance for this Object:

A. georgensis is naturally rare and largely confined to Bega Valley Shire and is listed as Vulnerable both in NSW and nationally. Its significance lies largely in the fact that it is found almost nowhere else, although it extends a little to the north of Bega Valley Shire. Unlike many wattles it has not been brought into horticultural use, despite being a hardy and attractive small tree, so it is unlikely to be encountered outside its area of natural occurrence.

Physical Condition:

Although A. georgensis occurs largely in undisturbed forest settings, those populations visited in recent years do show signs of drought-kill of some plants, and fires affected some populations in 2018. To date regeneration after either drought or fire appears to be adequate.

Other geographically associated places / sites: None

Heritage listings (statutory and non-statutory):

Works depicting/highlighting this object:

Historic photographs of this object:

Title of Object 3: Astrotricha sp. Wallagaraugh

Common name: Merimbula or Tura Starhair

Brief Description of Object:

Astrotricha sp. Wallagaraugh is a shrub, usually multi-stemmed, to about 2 metres high, but usually shorter. Many Astrotricha species have narrow leaves with the leaf margins revolute (rolled under) and the leaf underside densely covered in white or brown stellate (star-shaped, comprised of numerous radiating arms) hairs. Astrotricha sp. Wallagaraugh is one of these species. The stems and flower stalks are also covered in stellate hairs, as is the outer surface of the flowers, which are yellow-green, sometimes aging to a purplish brown. Flowering is in October to November. The genus Astrotricha belongs in the family Araliaceae, which is characterised by an inflorescence which is a “loose compound umbel” with clusters of flowers at the end of long side branches, and one larger terminal cluster.

It is known from only three areas: North Tura Beach to Merimbula, around Newtons Crossing on the Wallagaraugh River and further downstream on the Wallagaraugh River near Cape Horn, south of Gypsy Point in Victoria (upper end of Mallacoota Inlet). The genus Astrotricha is still being investigated and includes quite a lot of species which as yet have not been formally described, and in the meantime are known by temporary names. Astrotricha sp. Wallagaraugh is one of these. The rather chaotic state of Astrotricha taxonomy means it is hard to trace back to when this species was first recognised, since it has been known by a variety of temporary names, and there is as yet no paper describing it. It was listed as threatened in NSW in early 2007.

Location of Object:

Astrotricha sp. Wallagaraugh can be seen in scattered locations around Tura Beach, and above the steps down to Middle Beach in Merimbula. One of the easiest places to find it is in the Tura Flora Reserve located between High Crescent and Nolan Drive. The plant is scattered along the walking track through the reserve, and along the upper edge of the reserve adjacent to High Crescent. It can also be seen in front yards around Tura Beach which have retained some of the native vegetation of the area. Visitors to Newtons Crossing south-west of Eden might also notice it scattered around the picnic area.

Accessibility of Object:

Simply walking around the less developed parts of Tura Beach is an easy way to find this species, although it is rather inconspicuous when not flowering. It has even been surveyed in parts of Tura Beach by car (EnviroKey, 2012).

Evolutionary History of Object:

The Araliaceae family has a broad distribution across Eurasia, the Americas, Africa, Australia, New Zealand and the Pacific Islands, and includes 52 genera and 700 species ( The greatest diversity of species is found in Southeast Asia and tropical America. The family includes trees, shrubs, vines and herbaceous plants, with the main common feature being the arrangement of the flowers in the inflorescence. The most closely related family is the Apiaceae (carrot family), which also has the clusters of flowers similarly arranged, although more in the shape of an umbrella. The old name for this family was Umbelliferae. Taxonomists have considered that some genera should perhaps be moved from Apiaceae to Araliaceae. Other possibly familiar local plants in the Araliaceae family are the rainforest tree Pencil Cedar (Polyscias murrayi) and the shrub Ferny Panax (Polyscias sambucifolia).

The family includes some cultivated ornamentals, including English Ivy (Hedera helix), the houseplants Aralia and Fatsia, and the Queensland Umbrella Tree, Schefflera actinophylla, common in coastal gardens and sometimes escaping into nearby bush south of its natural range. The herbal medicine Ginseng root comes from the Asian Panax ginseng or the American P. quinquefolius, Chinese rice paper from the pith of Tetrapanax papyriferus (

The genus Astrotricha is endemic to (only found in) Australia. The genus name means star hair, referring to the stellate hairs found over much of the plant. NSW has 16 described species, all of which are shrubs, and several species which have yet to be formally described, including two locally, Astrotricha sp. Wallagaraugh (R. O. Makinson 1228) and Astrotricha sp. Deua (R. O. Makinson 1647) ( The Flora of Victoria also includes eight named species and five unnamed species, among which is Astrotricha sp. Wallagaraugh, referred to in Victoria as Astrotricha sp. 5. The Victoria-NSW border area is rather well endowed with undescribed species: Astrotricha sp. 2 is known only from the Howe Range between Mallacoota and the border, Astrotricha sp. 3 occurs only at Wingan Inlet a bit further south and Astrotricha sp. 4 grows around the Gelantipy-Suggan Buggan area of the lower Snowy River. Prior to the publication of the Flora of Victoria (Vol. 4) in 1999, most of these would have been referred to as either Astrotricha crassifolia (now regarded as confined to the Sydney area) or A. ledifolia (whose current distribution is thought to be largely on the NSW tablelands).

Social History of Object:

Astrotricha sp. Wallagaraugh was listed as Endangered in NSW in February 2007, because of its restricted distribution and the development pressure its habitat is under in the Tura Beach area, where the largest population is located. It is not yet listed nationally, because the Federal government generally will not list species which have not yet been formally described. It is listed as Vulnerable in Victoria.

It is hard to be sure when the first specimen of Astrotricha sp. Wallagaraugh was collected, due to the naming confusion between this species and A. crassifolia or A. ledifolia. Records of Astrotricha sp. Wallagaraugh in Australia’s Virtual Herbarium only date back to about the 1990s, but there are a couple of earlier records from the region of A. crassifolia which are obviously Astrotricha sp. Wallagaraugh. Ian Telford collected a specimen from the junction of the Wallagaraugh River and Imlay Creek (that is, Newtons Crossing) on 28 October 1977 and Neville Walsh collected at Cape Horn Peninsula 1 km south-west of Gypsy Point on 16 December 1979. The latter is the only location in Victoria at which Astrotricha sp. Wallagaraugh is known to occur. A couple of records of A. ledifolia from the south coast also persist in AVH, one of which is clearly Astrotricha sp. Wallagaraugh (Betty Wood, 16/10/1997, “Bournda NP, sandy soil near sea”). However, the other, collected by A.C. Beauglehole in 1969 in the Howe Range, from its location must be Astrotricha sp. 2, and a collection by A Floyd (undated) from Yambulla Peak which is in AVH as Astrotricha crassifolia is most likely to be Astrotricha sp. 4 under the Flora of Victoria classification.

Since its listing there have been some surveys undertaken to try and determine the exact distribution and population size of Astrotricha sp. Wallagaraugh. Local ecological consultancy, EnviroKey, undertook two surveys of the Tura Beach area on behalf of Bega Valley Shire Council (EnviroKey, 2009, 2012). They found a total of 1210 plants in their first survey, including 642 plants along the verges of Sapphire Coast Drive beween Widgeram Road and Mirador Drive which are the approximate northern and southern limits of the known population, apart from the Middle Beach area. They state that earlier studies (authors unspecified) had estimated a population of “several thousand plants” along Sapphire Coast Drive, suggesting that the species had declined severely over a fairly short time frame. Their study did not include private property, so it is likely their numbers were lower than the actual figure for the area. They partly addressed this problem in 2012 by undertaking a further survey of plants in front yards in a limited area of Tura Beach, which detected another 365 plants.

Tura Mirador Landcare Group also became involved in surveys for this species, with the assistance of threatened species officers from the NSW Office of Environment and Heritage (OEH). Because of the proximity of the largest population to residential areas, there have been several attempts by OEH staff to engage with the community to help conserve this species. In Sept-October 2013 officers from OEH spent five days surveying areas of public land around the Tura Beach area, followed by a joint survey with the Landcare Group in November 2013. These surveys did not result in a total count of the species in the area, but did contribute to a very much better understanding of its distribution around Tura, and the type of habitat in which it occurs, essentially dry forest, with a preference for openings in the tree canopy and the edges of clearings. The surveys found that Astrotricha sp. Wallagaraugh was present at low densities in a lot of locations within crown land or Council reserves around Tura, but was at high density in only a couple of locations (Goldin, 2014).

The assistance of the Landcare Group in conducting surveys was the first community event organised around this species, followed by an information day jointly run by Bega Valley Shire Council and OEH at the Tura-Marang library in June 2017. In November 2018 the local Atlas of Life in the Coastal Wilderness joined with OEH and Bega Valley Shire staff to hold an event looking at which insects pollinate Astrotricha sp. Wallagaraugh. After interesting presentations from experts about plant pollination strategies and the types of insects that might pollinate the plants, the group split up and lurked around three different nearby populations of Astrotricha, cameras poised, to record the insects visiting the flowers. A surprising number of different insects (and occasional spiders) were recorded, suggesting that Astrotricha sp. Wallagaraugh has a generalist pollination strategy, rather the requiring the services of a particular insect species or group. Numerous different types of flies, bees, beetles, bugs, moths and butterflies were all recorded visiting the flowers, resulting in over 130 records being added to the Atlas of Life website ( Additionally, the Atlas has taken over where the Landcare Group left off in recording sightings of the plant itself. While these are not formal surveys, they do provide a snapshot of the locations around Tura where the plant is currently found (

In 2017 staff from Forestry Corporation of NSW and consultant botanist Jackie Miles investigated the Wallagaraugh River population, which is within the Wallagaraugh Reserve along the river between Yambulla and Timbillica State Forests. They documented 28 clumps of plants or individuals, all within about 500 metres of Newtons Crossing and close to the Wallagaraugh River. Between this location and the Victorian occurrence of the species, there is a considerable stretch of very wild river, with few road access points, so the possibility remains that the species is scattered along the river between these points, or possibly also upstream of Newtons Crossing. Surveying for it would be quite difficult. A search at a single upstream location on the Wallagaraugh River near Yambulla Road by Jackie Miles in 2017 failed to find the species.

An intriguing feature of the species is the rather different habitats it occupies at Tura and Middle Beach compared with the Wallagaraugh River. In the latter area in NSW it is on granite, and quite closely tied to the river, with most plants within about 20 metres of the river bed, if not actually in the bed. At Tura-Merimbula it is on sandy soils derived from Tertiary sediments, and disappears from the landscape as soon as the Tertiary sediments are replaced by a different type of underlying rock to the north and south. A possible explanation could be that the species was deliberately or inadvertently introduced at Newtons Crossing and has spread gradually nearby, and possibly from seed washed downstream to the Victorian site. Genetic studies might help determine how similar the three populations are genetically, and hence how long they have been separated.

The particular Statement of Significance for this Object:

Astrotricha sp. Wallagaraugh is naturally rare and largely confined to Bega Valley Shire and is listed as Endangered in NSW and Vulnerable in Victoria. Its significance lies largely in the fact that it is found almost nowhere else. It has not been brought into horticultural use, despite being a hardy and attractive shrub when flowering, so it is unlikely to be encountered outside its areas of natural occurrence.

Physical Condition:

It is likely that much of the population of Astrotricha sp. Wallagaraugh has been eliminated by residential development at Tura Beach. However, substantial patches of remnant vegetation remain around Tura Beach, so it may be possible to retain a viable population of the species in this area. One factor in its favour is that it does seem to tolerate some degree of disturbance, such as fire or slashing. However, keeping it around will require active management of the habitat to favour it, and the cooperation of the Tura community. One way in which residents could assist is by keeping some “wild” areas in the garden where it can continue to grow, and by not planting environmental weeds which could overwhelm it when they escape into its bush habitat around the edges of the residential areas.

Other geographically associated places / sites:

Heritage listings (statutory and non-statutory):

Works depicting/highlighting this object:

Historic photographs of this object:

Historic photographs associated with this object:

Context: Relationship to National, State and Local historical themes

The historical themes that relate to Acacias, Merimbula Starhair and Lowland Grassy Woodland are outlined below. The analysis is based upon the recognition that the environment exists apart from being a construct of human consciousness. However, a thematic approach recognises the human factor in the natural environment, and how our understanding and appreciation of the environment has changed over time.




- Tracing climatic and topographical change

- Tracing the emergence of Australian plants and animals

- Assessing scientifically diverse environments

- Appreciating the natural wonders of Australia


Environment – Naturally evolved


The Natural Heritage of Bega Valley Shire

Other themes:



This theme group recognises the pre-colonial occupations of Indigenous people, as well as the ongoing history of human occupation from diverse areas.



- Feeding people

- Using indigenous foodstuffs

- Developing sources of fresh local produce

- Preserving (Using tannin from wattle bark in the leather industry)

- Adapting to diverse environments

- Farming for commercial profit

- Developing agricultural industries

- Struggling with remoteness, hardship and failure



Aboriginal cultures and interactions with other cultures


Activities relating to the cultivation and rearing of plant and animal species, usually for commercial purposes


Activities associated with identifying and managing land covered in trees for commercial timber purposes.



- Altering the environment

- Clearing vegetation

- Farming for commercial profit

- Struggling with remoteness, hardship and Failure

Environment – cultural landscape

Activities associated with the interactions between humans, human societies and the shaping of their physical surroundings


Activities associated with systematic observations, experiments and processes for the explanation of observable phenomena


Springtime Acacia flowerings and Wattle Day

Activities and processes that mark the consequences of natural and cultural occurrences



Aboriginal People’s Cultural Heritage and Connections to Bega Valley Shire

Working the land in Bega Valley Shire

Exploiting the forest resources of Bega Valley Shire

Economic survival in Bega Valley Shire

Cultural landscapes within Bega Valley Shire

Science and science education in Bega Valley Shire

Living in Bega Valley Shire

Working in Bega Valley Shire

Thematic storylines:

Tracing climatic and topographical change

Tracing the emergence of Australian plants and animals

Assessing scientifically diverse environments

Appreciating the natural wonders of Australia

Living as Australia’s earliest inhabitants

Adapting to diverse environments

Feeding people

Using indigenous foodstuffs

Developing sources of fresh local produce

Adapting to diverse environments

Developing agricultural industries

Altering the environment

Clearing vegetation

Developing economic links outside Australia

Conserving Australian resources

Conserving economically valuable resources

Conserving Australia’s heritage

Establishing regional and local identity

Enjoying the natural environment

Further information:

Contributors to this ‘library’:

Jackie Miles, Consultant Botanist.

Trevor King: BVSC Heritage Advisor

Acknowledgements, Rights and Permissions:

Primary text: © Jackie Miles. All rights reserved.

Secondary text: Thematic Context. © Trevor King. All rights reserved.

Photographs: © Jackie Miles and Max Campbell. All rights reserved.

References and bibliography:

Briggs, J.D. & Leigh, J. H. (1990): Delineation of important habitats of threatened plant species in south-eastern New South Wales. Research Report to the Australian Heritage Commission. Pp 32-42.

Briggs, J.D. & Leigh, J.H, (1996): Rare or Threatened Australian Plants. CSIRO and Australian Nature Conservation Agency.

Brodribb, T and Hill, R.S. (1993): A Physiological Comparison of Leaves and Phyllodes in Acacia melanoxylon. Australian Journal of Botany 41(3) 293 - 305

Cribb, A.B & J.W. (1974): Wild Food in Australia William Collins Pty Ltd.

Entwisle, T.J., Maslin, B.R., Cowan, R.S. & Court, A.B. (1996): Mimosaceae. In Flora of Victoria, Vol 3. Eds N.G. Walsh & T.J. Entwisle. Inkata Press.

EnviroKey (2012): Merimbula Star-hair Target Survey: Elizabeth Parade, Kangaroo Run, Wallaby Way, Kookaburra Court, Rosella Place, The Dress Circle, Tura Beach, N.S.W. A report prepared by S. Sass and S. Parsell of EnviroKey to Bega Valley Shire Council and the NSW Office of Environment and Heritage.

Fisher, Neil, pers. comm., 22 March 2019.

Goldin, Sarah (2014): Tura Starhair, Astrotricha sp. community mapping project. OEH Ecosystems and Threatened Species South East Region Sep - Nov 2013. Unpublished Report.

Groves, R. H. (1994): Australian Vegetation. Second Edition. Cambridge Univeristy Press.

Henwood, M.J., Makinson, R.O. & Maling, K.L (1999): Araliaceae. In Flora of Victoria, Vol 4. Ed. N.G. Walsh & T.J. Entwisle. Inkata Press.

Hitchcock, Maria (2010): The significance of Wattle Day – past, present and future. Australian Plants (Journal of the Australian Plants Society) Vol 25, No. 205: 347-352 (also at

Kodela, P.G. and Tame, T.M. (1999): Acacia pedina (Fabaceae: Mimosoideae) a new species from the south coast, New South Wales. Telopea 8(3); 305-309.

Kodela, P.G. and Harden, G.J. (2002): Acacia In Flora of New South Wales, Volume 2, 2nd edition, Ed. G.J. Harden, Royal Botanic Gardens, Sydney.

Low, Tim (1990): Bush Medicine. A Pharmocopoeia of Natural Remedies. Angus & Robertson.

Low, Tim (1988): Wild Food Plants of Australia. Angus & Robertson.

Maslin, Bruce (2003): Proposed name changes in Acacia. Newsletter of the Acacia Study Group

NSW NPWS (2002): Recovery Plan for Threatened Flora of Rocky Outcrops in South Eastern New South Wales. Draft for Public Comment, February, 2002.

Sandercock, B. (1997): Geographic variation in Acacia pycnantha Benth. Unpublished BSc (Hons) thesis. School of Botany, University of Melbourne.

Sass, S & Sass, L (2009); The endangered Merimbula Star-hair at Tura Beach: Currnt population status, potential threats and future management. A report prepared for Bega Valley Shire Council by EnviroKey.

Searle, Suzette (1991): The Rise and Demise of the Black Wattle Bark Industry in Australia. CSIRO Division of Forestry Technical Paper No. 1.

Stuart Cameron, pers. comm., 16 March 2019.

Tame, Terry (1992): Acacias of Southeast Australia. Kangaroo Press.

Tindale, M. D. (1980): Notes on Australian Taxa of Acacia No. 6. Telopea 1(6):429-450

Walsh, Neville, National Herbarium of Victoria, Royal Botanic Gardens, Melbourne (pers. comm.)

Wimbush, Robyn, pers. comm., 28 March 2019.

© 2019 Jackie Miles and Trevor King. All Rights Reserved.

Photos courtesy of Jackie Miles and Trevor King

This Bega Shire Hidden Heritage project has been made possible by the NSW Government through its Heritage Near Me program.

Any further information relating to this object or to associated topics will be GREATLY welcomed and will be added to the above library of information. Please email your contribution to